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Stewart  or  Stuart 




PO  Box  2270  '\ 

Fort  Wayne  JN  46801.2276 

Copyright,   1920, 
R.  L.  Polk  &  Co-  Inc 



Table  of  Contents: 

Chapter  1 7 

Origin  of  the  Name — Na  Stiubhartich — Stewart, 
Steuart  and  Stuart — Ancestral  Traditions — Fergus,  Son 
of  Ferquhard — Banquo,  Thane  of  Lochaber — The 
Dapifer  of  Del— The  High  Stewards  of  Scotland— The 
First  King  of  the  Race. 

Chapter  II . .     21 

Early  Cadets  of  the  Family — Sir  John  of  Bonkyl — Sir 
James  of  Peristoun — The  Black  Knight  of  Lorn — 
Albany — The  Wolf  of  Badenoch — Alexander,  Earl  of 
Mar — Athole. 

Chapter  III 35 

The  Clan  and  the  Crown — The  Badge  and  Tartan — 
Branches  of  the  Clan — Dugald  and  the  Clan  Appin — 
The  Clan  Marching  Song— Donald  of  the  Hammers — 
The  Atholemen — The  Clach  Dearg  of  Ardvoirlich — 
Sliochd  Aileen  'ic  Rob. 

Chapter    IV 53 

The  Dynasty — Mary,  Queen  of  Scots — Bonnie  Prince 

Chapter  V 67 

Early  American  History  of  the  Family — Story  of  Early 
Settlers  of  the  Name — Patrick  Stuart,  Laird  of  Led- 
creich — John  Stewart  of  Londonderry — Rev.  John 
Stuart — Stewart  of  Georgia — Lieut.  William  Stewart — 
George  Stuart — Colonel   Stuart  of  Virginia. 

Chapter    VI 84 

The  Family  in  Revolutionary  Times — From  the  Revolu- 
tion to   the   Civil   War — Civil   War   Records. 

Chapter  VII loi 

The  Family  in  the  United   States. 

Chapter  VIII I12 

Lines  of  Descent  in  Scotland,  England  and  Ireland — 
Heads  of  the  Family —  Notable  Members  of  the  Family 
in  the  British  Empire. 

Chapter  IX I2i 

Armorial   Bearings. 



LL  races  of  men  seem  to  have  an  intui- 
tive feeling  that  it  is  a  subject  of  legiti- 
mate pride  to  be  one  of  a  clan  or  family 
whose  name  is  written  large  in  past  his- 
tory and  present  affairs.  Everybody  likes  to  know 
something  about  his  forefathers,  and  to  be  able  to  tell 
to  his  children  the  tales  or  stories  about  their  an- 
cestors, which  he  himself  has  heard  from  his  parents. 
The  commandment,  "Honor  thy  father  and  thy 
mother,"  is  good  and  sufficient  authority  for  that  feel- 
ing of  reverence  which  is  so  generally  shown  towards 
a  line  of  honorable  ancestry.  The  history  of  the  fam- 
ily was  a  matter  of  much  importance  to  the  Greek; 
it  was  the  custom  of  a  primitive  Roman  to  preserve 
in  the  aula  of  his  house  the  images  of  all  the  illus- 
trious men  the  family  had  produced ;  the  Chinese  go 
so  far  as  to  magnify  such  reverence  into  ancestor 
worship ;  and  even  the  Red  Indian  of  our  own  North- 
west recorded  the  traditions  of  his  ancestors  on  the 
totem  of  his  tribe.  Well,  then,  may  the  story  of  the 
chivalry,  courage  and  even  lawlessness  (so  often  the 
mate  of  courage)  of  their  forefathers  find  a  respbnsive 
echo  in  the  hearts  of  their  present  day  descendants, 
"who  come  of  ane  house,  and  being  of  ane  surname, 
notwithstanding  this  lang  tyme  bygane."  It  is  not 
intended  in  this  story  of  the  family  to  attempt  any 
genealogical  investigation,  or  to  show  any  family 
tree,  but  rather  to  tell  of  those  bygone  members  of 
the  clan  in  whose  achievements  and  history  it  is 
the  common  heritage  of  all  who  bear  the  name  to 


6       History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family 

take  pride  and  interest — old  stories  of  the  Royal  house, 
old  stories  of  reckless  bravery,  of  scions  of  the  Royal 
stock  who  were  good  and  true  friends,  but  fierce  and 
bitter  enemies — stories  of  the  progenitors  of  the  race 
who  fought  hard,  lived  hard,  and  died  as  they  fought 
and  lived.  Those  olden  days  may  seem  a  time  of 
scant  respect  for  law,  of  misdirected  chivalry  and  of 
brave  deeds  often  wrongly  done,  but  there  is  surely 
no  true  Stewart  or  Stuart  who,  in  his  inmost  heart, 
is  not  proud  to  claim  descent  from  the  illustrious 
race,  whose  ancient  records  are  replete  with  many 
regal  and  romantic  traditions,  reminding  all  who 
hold,  or  shall  hereafter  hold,  the  honored  name,  that 

"Fetch  their  life  and  being 
From  men  of  Royal  siege;" 

whose  later  records  tell  of  those  early  adventurers 
who  left  their  native  hills  and  glens  for  the  new 
land  of  promise,  and  whose  descendants  have,  in  more 
pirosaic  times,  earned  honors  in  literature,  arms  and 
art.  "It  is  wise  for  us  to  recur  to  the  history  of  our 
ancestors.  Those  who  do  not  look  upon  themselves 
as  links  connecting  the  past  with  the  future  do  not 
fulfill  their  duty  in  the  world." 





jHE  Royal  race  of  Stewart  or  Stuart  can 
boast  a  line  of  unbroken  ancestry  equalled 
by  few  families  who  have  occupied  the 
thrones  of  Europe,  and  the  origin  of  the 
name  and  early  history  of  the  house  are  matters  of  na- 
tional interest.  The  history  of  the  family  of  Stewart,  Na 
Stiubhartich,  begins  before  the  invention  of  surnames, 
which,  according  to  accepted  authorities,  were  first 
used  by  the  Normans  in  the  twelfth  century.  Al- 
though historians  differ  as  to  the  ancestral  origin  of 
the  family,  the  origin  of  the  name  of  Stewart  seems 
clear.  Obviously  derived  from  the  high  ofhce  of 
Steward  of  the  Royal  Household,  it  was  probably  first 
used  as  a  surname  by  Walter,  the  third  of  the  family 
to  occupy  that  hereditary  office,  and  who  died  about 
1246.  The  orthography  of  the  name  consonant  with 
its  rise  seems  therefore  the  most  ancient.  But  dif- 
ferent races  in  process  of  time  have  altered  the  name, 
and  accordingly  we  find  it  also  written  Steuart,  and 
by  the  later  Royal  family  of  Scotland,  Stuart.  A 
probable  explanation  of  the  different  methods  of  writ- 
ing the  name  seems  to  be,  that  the  early  main  line 
used  Stewart,  derived  from  their  office  of  hereditary 
Lord  High  Steward,  and  therefore  those  who  retain 
the  original  spelling  are  descended  from  some  one  or 
other  of  the  branches  which  diverged  from  the  main 
line  at  a  period  antecedent  to  the  use  of  Stuart  by 
the  later  Royal  family.  Also  that  the  families  who 
adopt  the  spelling  of  Steuart  are  offshoots  of  the 
Royal  house  previously  to  that  time.    The  close  con- 


8       History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family 

nection  which  existed  between  Scotland  and  France 
appears  to  be  responsible  for  the  practice  of  writing  the 
name  in  the  form  of  Stuart,  as  the  French  are  with- 
out the  w  in  their  alphabet.  Sir  John  Stewart  of 
Darnley  and  D'Aubigny  has  been  mentioned  as  being 
the  first  to  use  the  French  spelling,  at  the  time  he 
was  in  the  service  of  the  Court  of  France.  Mary, 
Queen  of  Scots,  owing  to  her  residence  in  France  and 
strong  attachment  to  all  things  French,  contributed  to 
bring  the  innovation  into  use  in  the  Royal  family,  al- 
though her  son.  King  James  VI  of  Scotland  and  I  of 
England,  in  some  charters,  prefers  the  earlier  orthog- 
raphy ;  and  in  the  death  warrant  of  Charles  I  the  name 
is  spelled  Steuart.  Historians,  rightly  or  wrongly,  have 
generally  applied  to  the  Royal  family,  since  the  time 
of  Queen  Mary,  the  method  of  writing  the  name 
adopted  by  her,  Stuart,  and,  in  the  case  of  the  different 
families,  that  mode  of  orthography  has  been  rightly 
followed  which  the  families  have  long  been  in  the 
habit  of  using. 

In  considering  the  ancestral  origin  of  the  family  we 
find  much  that  is,  of  course,  established  by  proof, 
much,  also,  that  is  traditional  and  speculative.  But 
to  discard,  as  untrue,  all  tradition  incapable  of  proof, 
would  do  away  with  much  of  early  history,  and  it 
is  therefore  intended  to  present  both  the  traditional 
and  authenticated  history  of  the  progenitors  of  the 
family.  ^ 

One  fact  stands  out  clearly,  namely,  that  the  house 
of  Stewart  or  Stuart  provided  a  race  of  Scottish  Kings 
who  occupied  the  throne  of  Scotland  for  upwards 
of  three  hundred  years,  and  that  of  England  for 
more  than  one  hundred  years ;  and  from  whom  the 
present  dynasty  of  Great  Britain  and  Ireland  are  de- 
scended.   The  first  of  such  Kings  was  Robert  Stewart, 

History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family        9 

afterwards  King  Robert  II,  the  son  of  Walter  Stewart, 
sixth  hereditary  Lord  High  Steward  of  Scotland,  by 
his  wife,  the  Princess  Marjory,  daughter  of  King 
Robert  the  Bruce.  He  was  therefore  descended  on 
the  maternal  side  from  the  line  of  Scottish  Kings,  and 
on  the  paternal  side  from  the  house  of  Stewart. 

Many  stories  that  are  probably  mythical  have  been 
told  concerning  the  ancestral  origin  of  both  the  male 
and  female  lines.  In  the  case  of  the  female  line,  could 
it  be  shown  that  the  dynasty  of  Scotland  was  older 
than  that  of  England,  then  the  claim  of  the  latter 
dynasty  to  overlordship  would  be  overthrown,  and 
patriotic  historians  have  endeavored  to  adduce  proof 
of  such  seniority.  As  an  instance,  Bisset,  an  emis- 
sary of  Scotland  to  the  Papal  Court,  appeared  before 
Pope  Boniface  VIII,  in  1301,  in  support  of  Scottish 
independence,  and  told  the  remarkable  story  recorded 
in  his,  "Progressus  contra  figmenta  regis  Angliae," 
that  the  Egyptian  Princess  Scota  was  the  founder  of 
the  Dalriad  dynasty,  and  progenitress  of  the  Scoto-Pic- 
tish  Kings.  This  Scota  was  the  daughter  of  the  Pharaoh 
who  was  drowned  in  the  Red  Sea,  and  is  said  to  have 
married  Gathelus,  a  son  of  Cecrops,  King  of  Athens, 
with  whom,  and  a  goodly  following,  she  fled  from 
Egypt  tO'  Spain  to  escape  the  plagues  in  the  former 
country.  From  Spain  they  and  their  followers  later 
set  sail  and  landed  in  Ireland,  from  which  country  they 
afterwards  went  over  to  Scotland,  bringing  with  them, 
according  to  Bisset,  the  coronation  stone  of  Scone. 

Another  account  states  that  the  first  of  the  Scot- 
tish line  of  Kings  was  the  Dalriadic  Fergus,  son  of 
Ferquahad,  whom  the  historian  Buchanan  relates 
"began  to  reign  in  the  year  of  the  world  3641,  before 
the  coming  of  Christ  330  years."  But  the  generally 
accepted  founder  of  the  Dalriadic  dynasty  was  the 

10     History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family 

much  later  Fergus  Mor  Mac  Earca.  Dalriada  was 
the  ancient  name  for  the  northern  part  of  the  county 
of  Antrim,  Ireland.  The  Dalriads  are  supposed  to 
have  descended  from  Carbry  Riada,  (Riogh-fhada,  i.  e. 
of  the  long  wrist),  a  son  of  a  chief  of  the  Scots  in 
Ireland,  who  ruled  not  only  in  the  district  of  Ireland 
named  after  him,  but  crossed  to  Scotland  and  settled 
in  the  land  of  the  Picts.  About  the  year  500  A.  D. 
the  Dalriads,  led  by  Fergus,  passed  over  to  what  is 
now  Argyllshire,  where  they  settled  themselves  per- 
manently, and  formed  the  Kingdom  of  "Dalriada  in 
Albany,"  which  later  extended  and  became  the  King- 
dom of  Scotland. 

So  much  for  the  ancestors  of  the  first  Stewart  King 
in  the  female  line.  With  regard  to  the  male  line, 
early  historians,  supported  by  charters  and  deeds,  trace 
with  accuracy  the  descent  from  Alan,  father  of  Walter 
the  first  Steward  of  the  Royal  household,  under  King 
David  I,  who  reigned  from  1124  to  1153.  They  do 
not,  however,  agree  as  to  the  ancestral  origin  of 
Alan,  some  historians  agreeing  with  the  tradition 
which  connects  the  male  Stewart  line  with  Kenneth 
Mac  Alpine,  who  in  the  year  844  became  King  of 
the  united  Dalriads,  Picts  and  Scots,  thus  knitting  to- 
gether the  male  and  female  line  of  the  first  Stewart 
king  in  a  common  ancestral  origin,  for,  as  we  have 
seen,  it  is  claimed  that  the  founder  of  the  line  of 
Scottish  kings  was  Fergus,  whose  reign,  according  to 
Buchanan,  began  B.  C.  330.  Tradition  traces  the  de- 
scent from  this  Fergus  through  thirty-two  genera- 
tions down  to  Kenneth  Mac  Alpine,  who,  in  859  A.  D., 
was  succeeded  by  his  brother  Donald.  Constantine, 
the  brother  of  Kenneth  Mac  Alpine,  succeeded  Donald 
in  863,  being  followed  by  his  brother  Ethus  in  877. 
At  this  point  the  descent  of  the  progenitors  of  the 

History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family      11 

Stewarts  diverges  from  that  of  the  Scottish  Kings, 
into  the  line  of  Doir,  second  son  of  Ethus.  But,  later, 
on  the  death  of  David  II,  in  1371,  the  representation 
of  the  main  Hne  devolved  upon  his  nephew,  Robert 
Stewart,  (Robert  II),  the  descendent  ot  Doir. 

Doir,  second  son  of  Ethus,  was  Maormor,  or  Thane 
of  Lochaber.  He  married  Osfleda,  daughter  of  Osbert, 
King-  of  Northumbria,  and  died  in  936.  His  son, 
Murdoch,  married  Dervegil,  daughter  of  Hugh,  said 
to  be  the  ancestor  of  the  family  of  Douglas.  Murdoch 
died  in  959,  and  was  followed  by  his  brother  Ferqu- 
hard,  who  was  killed  at  Loncarty  in  the  year  980. 
Kenneth,  the  son  of  Ferquhard,  married  a  daughter 
of  King  Kenneth  HI,  and  died  in  1030  leaving  a  son, 
Banquo,  the  Thane  of  I^ochaber,  whose  posterity,  the 
witches  on  the  blasted  heath  foretold,  were  to  be  Kings 
of  Scotland,  "Thou  shalt  get  Kings,  though  thou  be 
none,"  the  witches,  enigmatically  declaring  him  to  be 
"lesser  than  Macbeth  and  greater,  not  so  happy  3'et 
much  happier."  He  was  murdered  by  Macbeth  about 

Of  Fleance,  the  son  of  Banquo,  Hollinshed  in  his 
Chronicles  says,  "Macbeth  devised  to  slay  Banquo 
and  his  soune.  It  chanced  through  the  benefit  of  a 
dark  night  that  though  the  father  was  slain,  the  son 
yet,  by  the  help  of  Almighty  God  reserving  him  to 
better  fortune,  escaped  that  danger,  and  to  avoid  fur- 
ther trouble  fled  into  Wales."  Another  early  histor- 
ian states,  that  Fleance  "fled  to  the  Prince  of  North 
Wales,  Griffyth  ap  Lewellyn,  with  whose  daughter 
Guenta  being  enamoured,  the  Welsh  Princess  bore  to 
Fleance  a  son,  Alan."  Camden  says  Fleance  was  mur- 
dered, about  the  year  1060,  on  account  of  the  favor 
with  which  he,  a  stranger,  was  looked  upon  by  the 
Welsh  Prince.     In  consequence  of  a  quarrel  at  the 

12     History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family 

Welsh  Court,  about  1067,  Alan,  the  sou  of  Fleance,  is 
said  to  have  returned  to  his  father's  native  country 
of  Scotland,  at  a  time  when  Edgar  Atheling,  v^ith  his 
mother  and  tvjo  sisters,  had  left  England,  and  placed 
themselves  under  the  protection  of  Michael  Canmore, 
(Malcolm  III,  1058-1093),  who  soon  after  married 
Margaret,  the  elder  of  the  two  Princesses.  Alan  en- 
tered the  service  of  King  Malcolm,  and  went  to  the 
Crusade  of  1 096-1099,  where  it  is  stated  "he  p>erformed 
great  things  in  the  Holy  Land  under  the  standard  of 
Godfred  of  Bouillon,"  and  was  present  at  the  taking 
of  Jerusalem  in  the  latter  year.  Alan  went  to  Eng- 
land, possibly  in  the  entourage  of  the  Princess  Matilda, 
who  married  Henry  I  in  the  year  iioo,  and  entered 
the  service  of  the  English  King,  receiving  from  the 
King  various  grants  of  land  in  Norfolk  and  Shrop- 
shire, with  the  whole  "Honour  of  the  Sheriff  of  Shrop- 
shire." Some  time  prior  to  the  year  1105,  he  married 
Avelina,  daughter  of  Ernulph  de  Hesding,  by  whom 
he  had  four  sons,  William,  ancestor  of  the  Fitz  Alans, 
Earls  of  Arundel,  which  Earldom,  in  1556,  became 
merged  in  the  Duchy  of  Norfolk ;  Walter,  afterwards 
the  first  High  Steward  of  Scotland ;  Jordan,  whose 
line  became  extinct  in  the  pterson  of  his  son ;  and  Simon, 
who  accompanied  Walter  to  Scotland  and  had  a  son, 
Robert,  known  as  Boidh,  fair  or  yellow,  the  ancestor 
of  the  Boyds  and  the  Earls  of  Kilmarnock. 

Other  historians  claim  that  Alan,  the  father  of  the 
first  Steward  of  Scotland  was  of  Breton  origin,  and 
took  descent  from  an  earlier  Alan  who  was  Dap'ifer 
or  Seneschallus  of  Dol,  in  Northern  France.  This 
Alan  is  said  to  have  had  two  sons,  the  elder  of  whom, 
Alan,  succeeded  his  father  as  Dapifer  of  Dol,  and 
was  a  leader  of  the  Crusade  in  1097.  The  younger 
son,   Flaad,  is  said  by   Pinkerton  to  have  been   the 

History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family      13 

father  of  the  agreed  ancestor,  Alan.  Pinkerton  states 
that  Alan,  the  son  of  Flaad,  was  a  Norman  Baron,  who 
obtained  from  William  the  Conqueror  the  Barony  of 
Oswestry,  in  Shropshire,  and  agrees  with  regard  to 
three  of  the  sons  named  in  the  first  mentioned  account, 
namely,  William,  the  ancestor  of  the  Fitz  Alans,  Earls 
of  Arundel ;  Walter,  the  Steward  of  Scotland ;  and 
Simon,  who  accompanied  Walter  to  Scotland.  But, 
neither  in  the  Domesday  Book,  the  Roll  of  Battle 
Abbey,  nor  in  any  account  of  those  who  accompanied 
William  the  Conqueror  from  Normandy,  is  the  name 
of  Alan  or  his  father  included. 

Walter,  the  son  of  Alan,  came  to  Scotland  and  was 
appointed  by  King  David  I  (1124-1153)  Steward  of 
the  Royal  household.  The  duties  of  High  Steward 
were  of  the  greatest  importance,  comprising  the  man- 
agement of  the  Royal  household,  collection  of  the 
National  revenue,  and  the  command  of  the  King's 
armies.  From  the  King,  Walter  obtained  grants 
of  the  lands  of  Renfrew,  Pollock,  Cathcart  and  others 
in  that  district.  These  grants  were  confirmed  by  Mal- 
colm IV  in  1 1 57.  In  1 160,  Walter  founded  the  Abbey 
of  Paisley,  the  Benedictine  monks  of  which  came  from 
the  Priory  of  Wenlock,  in  Shropshire.  Chalmers  says, 
"The  manor  of  Dundonald  belonged  to  Walter,  the 
son  of  Alan,  who  held  the  whole  of  the  northern 
half  of  Kyle.  Perhaps  the  Castle  of  Dundonald  was 
built  by  the  first  Walter  who  had  no  appropriate  house 
or  castle  when  he  settled  in  Scotland."  The  Castle 
of  Dundonald  stands  on  an  isolated  hill,  eight  miles 
north  of  Ayr.  Walter  died  in  1177,  and  was  buried 
in  the  Monastery  of  Paisley,  which  became  the  bury- 
ing place  of  the  family  until  their  accession  to  the 

Alan,  the  son  of  Walter  succeeded  as  High  Steward 

14      History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family 

of  Scotland  and  died  in  1204,  leaving  a  son,  Walter, 
whom  Alexander  II  appointed  Judiciary  of  Scotland 
in  addition  to  the  hereditary  office  of  Lord  High 
Steward.  The  practice  of  using  the  name  of  the 
hereditary  office  as  a  surname  is  ascribed  to  this 
Walter,  who  settled  the  name  of  Stewart  on  his  de- 
scendants. Walter  died  in  1246,  leaving  three  sons  and 
three  daughters.  His  sons  were,  Alexander,  the  eldest 
and  successor  as  Lord  High  Steward;  Sir  John,  who 
was  killed  at  Damietta,  in  Egypt;  and  Sir  Walter, 
known  as  "Bailloch"  or  the  freckled,  who  became  the 
Earl  of  Menteith. 

Alexander  Stewart,  the  fourth  Lord  High  Steward 
of  Scotland,  was,  in  1255,  one  of  the  Regents  of  Scot- 
land, and  councillors  of  King  Alexander  III,  who 
was  but  eight  years  of  age  when  crowned  at  Scone  in 
1249.  Alexander  married  Jean,  the  heiress  of  James, 
Lord  of  Bute  and  grandson  of  Somerled,  Lord  of  the 
Isles,  and  in  her  right  seized  the  Isles  Arran  and  Bute. 
Roderick  of  Bute  complained  to  Hakon,  King  of  Nor- 
way, of  the  encroachments  of  the  Scots,  and  the  Nor- 
wegian King,  in  1263,  appeared  at  Kirkwall  with  a 
large  fleet.  King  Hakon  was  defeated  at  the  Battle 
of  Largs,  2nd  October,  1263,  in  which  battle  the  High 
Steward  commanded  the  right  wing  of  the  Scottish 
army.     Alexander  Stewart  died  in   1283. 

He  had  two  sons,  James  Stewart,  his  successor, 
and  Sir  John  Stewart  of  Bonkyl  in  Berwickshire.  Also 
a  daughter,  Elizabeth,  who  married  Sir  William  Doug- 
las, ancestor  of  the  Earls  of  Douglas.  Sir  John  Stew- 
art of  Bonkyl  was  the  ancestor  of  many  noble  fam- 
ilies as  will  be  told  later.  On  the  death  of  King 
Alexander  III,  in  1286,  James  Stewart,  Lord  High 
Steward,  was  one  of  the  six  Regents  of  Scotland  dur- 
ing the  infant  Queen  Margaret's  absence  in  "Noroway 

History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family      15 


over  the  faem."    The  six  custodians  of  the  realm  were, 
The  Bishop  of  St.  Andrews,  The  Earl  of  Fife,  The  Earl 
of   Buchan,  The   Lord  of  Badenoch,  The   Bishop  of 
Glasgow,  and  James,  the  Steward.     Three  of  the  Re- 
gents took  charge  north,  and  three  south,  of  the  Forth. 
As  showing  the  necessity  for  the  division  of  authority, 
the  seal  used  by  the  burghers  of  Stirling,  in  1296,  may 
be  mentioned.     The  seal  represents  the  stone  bridge 
over  the  Forth,  with  a  crucifix  in  the  centre,  to  the 
right  of  which  men  with   spears  aim  them   at  men 
with  bows  at  the  left.     Above  the  spearmen  appear 
the  words,  "Hie  armis  bruti  Scoti  stant;"  above  the 
bowmen,  "Hie  cruce  tuti,"  meaning  to  distinguish  the 
bruti  Scoti,  ("Hieland  brutes"),  from  the  "Christians" 
south   of  the    Forth.      In    1289,   with   the    parties   of 
Bruce  and  Balliol  at  open  feud,  and  Scotland  on  the 
verge  of  anarchy,  the  management  of  the  Kingdom 
was  entrusted  to  the  Steward  while  the  other  Regents 
journeyed  to  England  to  treat  with  Edward  I.     He 
signed  the  Ragman  Roll  in   1296  containing  the  in- 
struments of  fealty  to  Edward,  but  the  same  year,  he 
and  his  brother  Sir  John  Stewart  of  Bonkyl  associated 
themselves  with  Wallace.     In  1306  he  wasi  compelled 
to  swear  fealty  to  the  English  King  at  Lanercost,  and 
to  render  his  oath  as  binding  as  possible,  it  was  taken 
upon  the  two  crosses  of  Scotland  most  esteemed  for 
their  sanctity,  on  the  consecrated  host,  the  Holy  Gos- 
pel, and  relics  of  saints.     Nevertheless,  he  again  sup- 
p*orted  the  patriotic  cause,  considering  that  his  faith 
was  not  to  a  usurper,  but  to  his  country,  and  died  in 
the  service  of  Bruce  in  1309.    James  Stewart  resided 
at  Renfrew  Castle,  which  had  originally  been  a  royal 
residence,  and  is  situated  on  high  ground  between  the 
Cross  and  the  Ferry  on  the  King's  Inch. 
The   sixth    Lord   High   Steward   of   Scotland   was 

16      History  of  the  Stewart  or  Sl.mrt  Family 

Walter  Stewart,  the  son  of  James.  When  only  twenty- 
one  years  of  age,  he,  with  Douglas,  commanded  the 
left  wing-  of  the  Scots  army  at  the  Battle  of  Bannock- 
burn,  1314. 

"Walter,  Stewart  of  Scotland  syne 
That  then  was  but  a  beardless  lyne. 
Came  with  a  rout  of  noble  men 
That  might  by  countenance  be  ken." 

Towards  the  close  of  the  same  year,  Elizabeth,  King 
Robert  the  Bruce's  second  wife,  and  his  daughter 
Marjory,  by  his  first  wife,  who  were  in  captivity  in 
England,  were  liberated  in  exchange  for  the  Earl  of 
Hereford ;  and  the  young  Steward  was  sent  by  King 
Robert  to  receive  them  on  the  Borders.  Walter  evi- 
dently made  the  most  of  his  opportunity,  for  the  fol- 
lowing year  the  King  bestowed  the  Princess  Marjory 
in  marriage  upon  him.  With  her  he  received  in  dower 
a  large  endowment  in  lands,  including  the  Barony  of 
Bathgate,  Linlithgowshire.  He  had  already  received 
the  Lordship  of  Largs  on  the  forfeiture  of  John  Bal- 
liol.  Princess  Marjory  died  in  1316.  According  to 
tradition  she  was  thrown  from  her  horse  at  the  Knock, 
near  Renfrew,  and  instantly  killed,  leaving  a  son  who 
was  afterwards  King  Robert  H. 

When  King  Robert  the  Bruce  went  to  the  assistance 
of  his  brother  Edward  in  Ireland,  he  left  the  Kingdom 
to  the  sway  of  the  High  Steward  and  Sir  James  Doug- 
las. On  the  capture  of  Berwick  from  the  English,  in 
1318,  Walter  Stewart  got  the  command  of  the  town, 
which  he  defended  against  the  English  in  1319.  In 
1322,  during  Bruce's  invasion  of  England,  after  the 
defeat  of  the  English  at  Bigland  Abbey  in  Yorkshire, 
the  Steward,  with  five  hundred  horse,  pursued  Edward 
to  York,  where  with  the  greatest  chivalry,  the  Stew- 

History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family      17 

ard  waited  at  the  gates  till  the  evening  for  the  enemy 
to  come  forth  and  renew  the  combat.  He  died  on  the 
9th  April,  1326,  at  Bathgate  Castle  being  at  the  time 
of  his  death  only  thirty-three  years  of  age. 

His  son,  by  the  Princess  Marjory,  Robert  Stewart, 
seventh  Lord  High  Steward,  had,  on  the  death  of  Ed- 
ward Bruce  in  1318,  been  declared  heir  to  the  throne, 
always  provided  that  King  Robert  the  Bruce  died 
without  male  offspring.  The  birth  of  a  son,  after- 
wards David  n,  to  Bruce,  in  1326,  interrupted  his 
prospects  for  a  time.  The  Scottish  chronicler  Fordun 
describes  Robert  Stewart  as,  "a.  comely  youth,  tall  and 
robust,  modest,  liberal,  gay  and  courteous  and,  for 
the  innate  sweetness  of  his  disposition,  generally  be- 
loved of  all  true  hearted  Scotsmen."  From  his  grand- 
father, the  King,  he  received  large  grants  of  land  in 
Kintyre.  In  1333,  at  the  age  of  seventeen,  under  the 
inspection  of  his  kinsman  Sir  James  Stewart,  he  com- 
manded the  second  division  of  the  Scots  army  at  the 
disastrous  Battle  of  Halidon  Hill.  Many  Stewarts  of 
the  different  branches  fell  at  this  battle  and  the  Eng- 
lish made  much  of  their  victory,  claiming  that  Hali- 
don Hill  had  wiped  out  the  shame  of  Bannockburn. 
The  English  soldier  poet,  Lawrence  Minot,  expresses 
this  sentiment, 

"Scots  out  of  Berwick,  and  out  of  Aberdeen, 
At  the  Burn  of  Bannock  ye  were  far  too  keen. 
Many  guiltless  men  3^e  slew,  as  was  clearly  seen, 
But  King  Edward  has  avenged  it  now,  and  fully 
too,  I  ween." 

Robert  the  Steward  was  comp>elled  to  hide  in  Bute, 
was  forfeited  by  the  English  King,  and  his  office  of 
High  Steward  claimed  by  the  Earl  of  Arundel,  who 
pretended  a  right  to  it  on  account  of  his  descent  from 
William,  the  elder  brother  of  Walter,  the  first  Steward 

18     History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family 

of  the  family.  The  following  year  Robert  Stewart 
escaped  from  Bute,  recovered  his  own  castle  of  Du- 
noon, and  reduced  the  Island  of  Bute,  compelling  the 
people  of  Renfrewshire  and  Ayrshire  to  acknowledge 
David  II.  On  the  death  of  Sir  Andrew  Moray,  the 
Regent,  in  1338,  the  command  of  the  Scots  army  de- 
volved on  the  Steward,  by  whose  exertions  the  Eng- 
lish were  eventually  driven  from  the  country.  In 
1341,  when  Stirling  and  Edinburgh  were  in  Scottish 
hands,  it  was  deemed  safe  to  bring  back  David  II 
from  France,  where  he  had  been  sent  in  1334.  In  Oc- 
tober 1346,  when  David  II  was  defeated  and  taken 
prisoner  by  the  English  at  the  Battle  of  Neville's 
Cross,  the  remains  of  the  Scottish  army  were  safely 
brought  back  to  Scotland  by  the  Earl  of  March  and 
the  Steward.  David  lived  happily  in  England,  while 
Robert  Stewart  ruled  Scotland,  and  evinced  no  strong 
desire  for  the  return  of-  the  King.  The  liberation  of 
the  King  was,  in  1357,  effected  by  the  Steward,  his 
own  eldest  son  being  one  of  the  hostages  sent  to 
England  in  the  sovereign's  stead.  But  in  1363,  the  son 
of  Robert  the  Bruce  went  to  London,  and  offered  to 
sell  the  freedom  of  Scotland  to  the  grandson  of  Ed- 
ward I ;  the  p*roposal  being  that  the  succession  to  the 
throne  of  Scotland  be  settled  on  Prince  Lionel,  Duke 
of  Clarence,  son  of  the  English  king.  This  proposal 
being  made  to  the  Scots  Parliament  evoked  the  reply, 
"Never  will  we  have  an  Englishman  to  rule  over  us," 
and  the  Steward  assembled  his  followers  to  enforce 
his  right  of  succession,  which  had  been  confirmed  by 
a  former  Parliament.  The  King  however  awed  them 
into  submission,  but  he  himself  was  compelled  to  re- 
spect the  law  of  succession  as  established  by  Robert 
the  Bruce,  and  conferred  the  Earldom  of  Carrick  upon 
the  eldest  son  of  the  Steward.    The  Earldom  of  Stra- 

History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family      19 

thern  had  already  been  conferred  on  the  Steward. 
Nevertheless  there  remained  a  suppressed  feud  be- 
tween the  King,  who  was  childless,  and  the  Steward, 
the  heir  to  the  throne.  David,  having  lost  his  first 
wife  in  1362,  now,  in  1368,  married  Margaret  Logic, 
who  had  already  been  four  times  a  bride,  and  con- 
trived to  involve  his  country  in  every  kind  of  trouble 
and  disgrace.  He  divorced  Margaret  Logic,  an  ac- 
tion attributed  to  an  intention  on  her  piart  to  bring  in 
a  "warming  pan"  heir.  Because  of  her  intrigues  the 
King  had,  in  January  1369,  imprisoned  the  Steward 
and  his  notorious  son,  the  Wolf  of  Badenoch,  in  Loch 
Leven  Castle.  King  David  II  died  in  Edinburgh 
Castle  on  the  22nd  February,  1370.  The  three  estates 
were  convened  at  Linlithgow  to  choose  a  king.  In 
1318,  Parliament  had,  as  we  have  seen,  settled  the 
succession  on  the  descendants  of  the  Princess  Mar- 
jory, daughter  of  Robert  the  Bruce,  and  Walter,  the 
Steward  of  Scotland.  Now,  an  opposing  claim  was  put 
forward  by  Earl  William  of  Douglas,  but  he  could 
not  defeat  the  claim  of  Robert  Stewart,  the  successor 
established  by  the  Bruce,  and  supported  by  Dunbar, 
March,  Moray  and  Erskine,  who  held  among  them 
Edinburgh,  Stirling  and  Dumbarton,  the  three  chief 
strongholds  of  the  Kingdom.  Thus,  the  first  Stewart 
King,  Roberj  II,  ascended  the  throne. 

The  direct  male  line  of  the  elder  branch  of  the 
Stewarts  continued  upon  the  throne  of  Scotland,  in  un- 
broken succession  from  father  to  son,  down  to  James 
V,  who  was  succeeded  by  his  daughter,  Mary,  Queen 
of  Scots.  Her  son,  James  VI  of  Scotland  and  I  of 
England,  took  descent  on  his  father's  side  through 
the  Earl  of  Lennox,  the  head  of  the  second  branch. 

Having  told  the  early  history  of  the  main  line  of  the 
house  of  Stewart,  and  of  their  accession  to  the  throne. 

20     History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family 

it  is  not  intended  in  this  story  of  the  family  to  give 
a  mere  chronological  summary  of  occurrences  con- 
nected with  the  reign  of  each  one  of  their  descendants 
who  occupied  the  throne,  and  whose  story  has  been 
told  again  and  again  in  national  history ;  but,  rather, 
to  tell  of  other  branches  of  the  Stewarts  and  the 
numerous  families  of  the  name,  which  have,  at  dif- 
ferent periods,  diverged  from  the  main  stock,  and 
produced  many  notable  figures  in  the  life  and  history 
of  their  times. 

Before  concluding  this  chapter  on  the  origin  of  the 
family,  it  is  interesting  to  note  that  at  the  time  of  the 
second  Jubilee  of  the  late  Queen  Victoria,  a  chart  was 
prepared  by  an  English  clergyman  showing  the  de- 
scent of  the  Royal  family  from  Judah.  It  is  in  the 
form  of  a  tabular  pedigree  of  one  thousand  names, 
which  shows  the  line  of  ancestry  through  the  house 
of  Stuart,  back  to  Robert  II,  and  traces  both  the  pa- 
ternal and  maternal  line  of  the  first  Stewart  King, 
through  Kenneth  Mac  Alpine,  to  Fergus  Mor  Mac 
Earca.  The  line  is  then  carried  further  back  through 
Ferquhad,  the  son  of  Angus  the  Prolific,  to  Tea  Tephi, 
the  daughter  of  Zedekiah,  who  married  Heremon  the 
ancestor  of  the  ancient  Irish  and  Scottish  Kings. 
From  Zedekiah  the  line  is  traced  back  through  the 
Kings  of  Judah  to  the  wise  King  Solomon,  son  of 
David,  and  thence  through  nine  generations  to  Judah. 
The  author  of  the  chart  takes  as  his  texts,  "I  will  not 
fail  David,"  and  the  following  from  the  89th  Psalm : 
"His  seed  also  will  I  make  to  endure  for  ever,  and  his 
throne  as  the  days  of  Heaven." 


ONSIDERATION  of  the  early  branches 
and  cadets  of  the  Stewart  family  necessi- 
tates a  return  to  Walter,  the  third  Stew- 
ard. As  mentioned  in  the  preceding  chap- 
ter, his  third  son  was  Sir  Walter  Stewart,  called  Bail- 
loch  or  the  freckled.  Having  married  the  younger 
sister  of  the  Countess  of  Menteith,  Sir  Walter  claimed 
the  Earldom  in  right  of  his  wife,  and  by  favor  of  the 
Estates  of  the  realm,  in  1258,  obtained  it, — and  kept 
it.  He  had  two  sons,  Alexander,  his  successor,  and 
Sir  John  Stewart  of  Ruskie.  Alexander's  grandson, 
Alan,  Earl  of  Menteith,  was  succeeded  by  a  daughter, 
married  to  Sir  John  Graham,  who  in  her  right  be- 
came Earl  of  Menteith.  The  second  son.  Sir  John 
Stewart  of  Ruskie,  who  was  also  known  as  Sir  John 
de  Menteith,  appears  in  history  as  the  betrayer  of  Will- 
iam Wallace,  The  story,  much  clouded  by  legend,  says 
that  Wallace  was  in  hiding  from  the  English  King, 
who  had  offered  rewards  for  his  capture.  Sir  John's 
sister's  son,  who  was  in  Wallace's  service,  warned 
his  uncle  of  Wallace's  purpose  to  meet  Bruce  on 
Glasgow  Muir,  whereupon  Sir  John  sent  out  a  spy  to 
observe  the  house  where  Wallace  lay,  and  surround- 
ing the  cottage  of  Lumloch,  captured  him  in  his  bed. 
Whether  betrayal  is  the  correct  description  of  Sir 
John's  action  is  questionable.  Treachery  on  the  p^rt 
of  a  fellow  countryman,  and  an  old  comrade  in  arms, 
undoubtedly  adds  romance  to  the  capture  of  the  na- 
tional hero,  but  as  a  matter  of  fact,  Sir  John  was  at 
that  time  actually  in  the  service  of  the  English  King, 


22     History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family 

and  held  the  responsible  office  of  Governor  of  Dum- 
barton Castle.  It  is  possible  he  only  performed  a  dis- 
agreeable duty. 

The  fourth  Steward,  Alexander,  also  had  a  younger 
son,  known  as  Sir  John  Stewart  of  Bonkyl.  From 
his  father,  he  received  the  Barony  of  Garlics,  and  is 
thus  described  in  Nisbet's  Heraldry :  "Sir  John  Stew- 
art of  Bonkyl,  second  son  of  Alexander,  High  Stew- 
ard of  Scotland,  born  in  the  year  1246."  He  married 
Margaret,  "the  heiress  of  Bonkyl,  a  virgine  of  great 
ibeauties."  In  1292,  he  was  one  of  the  auditors  for 
Robert  the  Bruce,  and  his  name  appears  second  in 
the  sixteen  hundred  or  more  names  in  the  Ragman 
Roll,  the  preceding  name  being  that  of  James  Stewart, 
his  elder  brother  the  High  Steward.  Sir  John  fought 
with  Wallace  at  the  Battle  of  Falkirk,  and  with  him 
were  the  men  of  Bute,  who  were  known  as  the  Lord 
High  Steward's  Brandanes. 

"Thare  Jhon  Stwart  a-pon  fute 
With  him  the  Brandanys  thare  of  Bute." 

The  Brandanes  were  almost  wholh^  slain  in  the  Battle, 
and  Sir  Jolui,  the  "braw  and  worthy  Knycht,"  as  Blind 
Harry  calls  him,  was  also  killed.  A  monument  to 
his  memory  at  Falkirk  states,  "Here  lies  a  Scottish 
hero.  Sir  John  Stewart,  killed  at  the  Battle  of  Falkirk, 
22  July.  T298."  He  had  seven  sons,  upon  each  of 
whom  Robert  the  Bruce  bestowed  honors  and  estates, 
and  from  whom  many  noble  and  ancient  families  de- 

The  eldest  of  the  seven  sons,  Sir  Alexander  Stewart, 
of  Bonkyl  succeeded,  and  his  son.  Sir  John,  was,  in 
1327,  created  Earl  of  Angus,  after  the  forfeiture  of 
de  Umphraville.  He  died  in  December,  1331,  leaving 
an  only  son  Thomas,  Earl  of  Angus,  whose  son,  also 

History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family      23 

Thomas,  the  third  Earl  of  Angus  of  the  name  of  Stew- 
art, died  in  1377  without  issue,  when  the  title  devolved 
upon  his  sister,  Lady  Margaret  Stewart.  She  mar- 
ried, as  her  second  husband,  William,  first  Earl  of 
Douglas,  by  whom  she  was  the  mother  of  George  de 
Douglas,  granted  the  Earldom  of  Angus  by  King 
Robert  II,  in  1389. 

The  second  son  of  Sir  John  of  Bonkyl,  was  known 
as  Sir  Alan  Stewart  of  Dreghorn  in  Ayrshire.  With 
two  other  brothers  he  was  killed  at  the  Battle  of 
Halidon  Hill  in  1333.  He  left  a  son  Sir  Alexander  of 
Darnley,  who  died  in  1372,  whose  third  son,  also  Sir 
Alexander  of  Darnley,  died  in  1404,  leaving  an  eldest 
son.  Sir  John  Stewart  of  Darnley,  knighted  in  1383 
and  killed  at  Orleans,  1429.  From  him  descended  the 
Earls  and  Dukes  of  Lennox.  Henry  Stewart,  Lord 
Darnley,  eldest  surviving  son  of  Matthew,  Earl  of 
Lennox,  and  husband  of  Mary,  Queen  of  Scots,  was 
the  fifth  in  descent  from  Sir  John  of  Darnley.  From 
Sir  William  Stewart,  a  younger  brother  of  Sir  John  of 
Darnley,  are  descended  the  Earls  of  Galloway  and 
their  cadets,  among  whom  are  the  Stuarts  of  Castle- 
milk.  Sir  William  is  more  fully  referred  to  later,  his 
son  having  married  the  heiress  of  Dalswinton. 

The  third  son  of  Sir  John  of  Bonkyl,  Sir  Walter 
Stewart  of  Dalswinton,  received  for  his  services  to 
Robert  the  Bruce  a  grant  of  the  lands  of  Dalswinton, 
which  had  been  forfeited  by  the  Comyns.  The  Barony 
of  Garlics,  conferred  on  his  grandfather,  Alexander, 
fourth  High  Steward,  by  King  Alexander  III,  for  his 
services  in  defeating  Hakon  at  the  Battle  of  Largs, 
in  1263,  was  also  granted  to  Sir  Walter.  He  was 
succeeded  by  his  son,  Sir  John  Stewart  of  Dalswinton, 
who  was  captured  by  the  English  at  the  Battle  of 
Neville's  Cross  in  1346.    His  son  Sir  Walter,  left  ats 

24      History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family 

only  child  and  heiress,  Marion  Stewart  of  Dalswinton, 
who,  in  1396,  married  Sir  John  Stewart,  elder  son  of 
Sir  William  Stewart.  This  Sir  William  figures  in  dif- 
ferent records  as,  "de  Jedworth,"  "de  Tevitdale,"  and 
"de  Foresta,"  and,  as  already  mentioned,  was  the 
younger  son  of  Sir  Alexander  Stewart  of  Darnley. 
Sir  William  is  mentioned  by  Froissart  as  one  of  the 
Scottish  leaders  at  Otterburn  in  1388,  and  was  killed 
by  Hotspur,  when  a  prisoner,  after  the  Battle  of 
Homildon,  in  1402. 

The  three  brothers.  Sir  John  Stewart  of  Daldon,  fifth 
son.  Sir  Robert  Stewart  of  Daldowie,  sixth  son,  and 
Sir  Flugh  Stewart,  seventh  son  of  Sir  John  of  BonkyU 
accompanied  Edward  Bruce  on  his  expedition  to  Ire- 
land. Sir  John  of  Daldon  was  later  killed  at  the  Battle 
of  Halidon  Hill ;  from  Sir  Robert's  grandson,  Sir  Alan 
Steuart  who  died  in  1444,  spring  the  Steuarts  of  Allan- 
ton  ;  Sir  Hugh  died  unmarried. 

The  records  relating  to  the  descendants  of  Sir  James 
Stewart,  the  fourth  son  of  Sir  John  of  Bonkyl,  are  of 
particular  interest.  Robert  the  Bruce  granted  him  a 
charter  of  the  lands  of  Peristoun  and  Warwickhill,  in 
the  district  of  Cunningham,  Ayrshire.  He  was  at  the 
Battle  of  Bannockburn,  1314,  and  was  killed  at  Hali- 
don Hill  in  1333,  with  his  brothers.  Sir  Alan  and 
Sir  John.  Lord  Hailes  in  his  Annals  points  out,  that 
"At  Halidon  two  Stewarts  fought,  the  one  Alan  of 
Dreghorn,  the  paternal  ancestor  of  Charles  I,  and  the 
other,  James,  his  brother,  the  maternal  ancestor  of 
Oliver  Cromwell."  Alan  of  Dreghorn  was,  as  has  been 
mentioned,  the  ancestor  of  Henry  Stewart,  Lord  Darn- 
ley,  father  of  James  VT  and  I,  while  Cromwell's  mother 
was  said  to  be  descended  from  the  Stewarts  of  Ely. 
Lord  Hailes  was  of  opinion  that  the  latter  family  came 
from   Sir  James   Stewart  of   Peristoun,   through   the 

History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family      25 

Rosyth  family;  but  that  Cromwell  took  descent  from 
the  Stewarts  has  been  denied,  more  especially  by 
Rye  in  the  "Genealogist."  Sir  James  of  Peristoun 
left  three  sons,  Sir  John,  who  died  without  male  is- 
sue; Sir  Alan  who  had  a  son,  Sir  John,  who  died 
without  issue ;  and  Sir  Robert. 

Sir  Robert  Stewart  was  designed  of  Innermeath, 
and  had  two  sons  Sir  John  and  Sir  Robert,  the 
elder  of  whom,  Sir  John  Stewart,  was  ancestor  of 
the  Clan  Stewart  of  Appin,  referred  to  more  fully  in 
the  next  chapter.  Sir  John  married,  about  1386,  Iso- 
bel,  the  younger  daughter  and  co-heiress  of  John  de 
Ergadia,  Lord  of  Lorn ;  and  Sir  Robert  his  brother 
married  Janet,  her  elder  sister.  In  1388,  Sir  Robert 
and  his  wife  Janet  resigned  their  portion  of  the  land? 
of  Lorn  in  favor  of  Sir  John,  who  also  received  from 
Robert  II  a  confirmatory  charter  of  Lorn.  Sir  John 
Stewart  thus  succeeded  to  the  estates  of  the  ancient 
family  of  the  MacDougals  of  Lorn,  and  quartered  the 
lymphad,  or  galley,  of  Lorn  with  his  paternal  coat 
of  arms.  He  had  five  sons,  Robert  his  successor; 
Archibald ;  Sir  James,  called  the  Black  Knight  of 
Lorn ;  Alexander,  ancestor  of  the  Stewarts  of  Grand- 
tully;  and  William. 

To  mention  first  Sir  James,  the  second  son,  the 
Black  Knight  of  Lorn.  He  married,  in  1439,  the  Lady 
Joan  Beauport,  eldest  daughter  of  John,  Marquess 
of  Dorset,  granddaughter  of  John  of  Gaunt,  and  widow 
of  James  I.  The  Black  Knight  of  Lorn  was  at  this 
time  closely  allied  to  the  house  of  Douglas,  and  Sir 
Alexander  Livingston,  who,  with  Crichton  the  Chan- 
cellor, was  in  control  of  the  affairs  of  the  kingdom, 
became  alarmed  at  the  probable  accession  of  power 
to  that  great  family.  Seeing  that  the  Black  Knight, 
as  husband  of  the  Queen  Mother,  who  was  custodian 

26     History  of  the  Stewart  or  Smart  Family 

of  the  person  of  the  young  King  James  II,  might 
insist  on  a  principal  share  in  the  direction  of  the  King, 
Livingston  threw  him  and  his  brother  William  into 
prison,  and  confined  the  Queen  Mother  to  her  private 
apartments  until  she  signed  a  deed  surrendering  the 
control  of  the  king.  After  his  release  Sir  James  went 
abroad,  where  he  died,  leaving  three  sons,  John,  Earl 
of  Athole ;  Sir  James  Stewart,  called  "Hearty  James," 
created  Earl  of  Buchan,  in  1466;  and  Andrew,  Bishop 
of  Moray. 

Sir  John  Stewart,  the  eldest  son  of  the  Black  Knight 
of  Lorn,  was  created  Earl  of  Athole  in  1457,  and,  in 
1460,  obtained  from  his  half  brother,  James  II,  a 
charter  of  the  lordship  of  Balveny,  in  portion  with 
Margaret  Douglas,  known  as  the  Fair  Maid  of  Gallo- 
way, daughter  of  the  Earl  of  Douglas.  His  son,  and 
successor,  John,  was  killed  at  Flodden.  The  next  Earl, 
also  John,  was  noted  for  his  great  hospitality  and 
princely  style  of  living  and  died  in  1542.  Dorothea, 
the  daughter  and  heiress  of  the  fifth  Earl  married 
William  Murray,  Earl  of  Tullibardine,  who,  in  1626, 
resigned  the  Earldom  of  Tullibardine  in  favor  of  Sir 
Patrick  Murray,  on  condition  of  the  revival  of  the 
Earldom  of  Athole  in  his  wife  and  her  descendants. 
The  Earldom  thus  passed  to  the  Murray  line. 

Hearty  James,  the  second  son  of  the  Black  Knight, 
obtained,  in  1466,  the  title  Earl  of  Buchan,  and,  in 
1471,  on  the  fall  of  Lord  Boyd,  was  made  High  Cham- 
berlain of  Scotland.  He  died  about  1500.  His  son 
and  grandson  both  succeeded  to  the  title.  John  Stew- 
art, the  eldest  son  of  the  latter,  had  a  daughter,  Chris- 
tian Stewart,  who  succeeded  to  the  title,  and  married 
a  Douglas. 

To  return  to  Sir  Robert  Stewart,  the  eldest  son  of 
Sir  John  of  Innermeath  and  Lorn.     On  the  death  of 

History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stvxirt  Family      27 

his  father  Sir  Robert  became  Lord  of  Lorn  and  Inner- 
meath,  and  married,  about  1409,  Margaret  the  fourth 
daughter  of  Robert,  first  Duke  of  Albany.  His  eldest 
son  and  successor.  Sir  John  Stewart,  Lord  of  Lorn  and 
Innermeath,  had  three  daughters,  who  married,  Isobel 
to  Colin  Campbell,  first  Earl  of  Argyll ;  Margaret,  to 
Sir  Colin  Campbell  of  Glenurchy;  and  Marion,  to 
Arthur  Campbell  of  Ottar.  There  is  some  question 
as  to  the  order  of  birth  of  the  three  daughters,  and  of 
the  manner  in  which  the  Lordship  of  Lorn  passed  to 
the  Argyll  family;  but  by  the  marriage  of  these 
daughters  the  Lordship'  of  Lorn  became  vested  in  the 
Earls  of  Argyll.  Sir  John  also  had,  by  a  daughter 
of  Mac  Laren  of  Ardveitch,  a  son  Dugald,  the  founder 
of  the  Clan  Appin  Stewarts  referred  to  in  the  next 

Turning  next  to  the  younger  sons  of  Robert  II, 
the  first  of  the  Stewart  kings,  we  find  that  the  most 
notable  of  such  sons  by  his  first  wife  Elizabeth  Mure 
were  Robert,  Earl  of  Fife  and  later  Duke  of  Albany, 
and  Alexander  the  Wolf  of  Badenoch. 

Robert  Stewart,  first  Duke  of  Albany  was  the  third 
son  of  Robert  II  by  his  first  wife.  The  name  Albany 
is  probably  derived  from  the  Pictish  word  Alban, 
meaning  the  superior  height,  and  in  early  times  was 
the  appellation  of  the  whole  island.  The  Scottish 
highlanders  called  themselves  "Gael  Albinn."  The 
word  however  later  came  to  mean  the  mountainous 
district  comprising  App'in  and  Glenurchy  in  Argyll- 
shire, Athole  and  Breadalbane  in  Perthshire,  and  part 
of  Lochaber  in  Invernessshire.  Robert  Stewart  was 
born  in  1339,  and  in  1371  was  created  Earl  of  Fife. 
In  1389,  in  consequence  of  the  advanced  age  of 
his  father,  the  King,  and  the  bodily  infirmity  of  hijs 
elder  brother,  the  Earl  of  Carrick,  afterwards  Robert 

28     History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family 

III,    who    had   been    rendered    lame    in    early    youth 
through  the  kick  of  a  horse,  Robert,  Earl  of  Fife,  was 
appointed  Governor  of  the  Kingdom.    In  April,  1390, 
his  father  Robert  II  died,  and  his  elder  brother  John, 
succeeded  to  the  throne  under  the  name  of  Robert 
III,  that  of  John  being  considered  unfortunate.     The 
new   king  allowed  the   management  of  the  kingdom 
to  remain  in  the  hands  of  the  Earl  of  Fife,  but  the 
king's  son,  Prince  David,  now  Earl  of  Carrick  and  heir 
apparent,  compelled  his  retirement,  and  got  himself 
named  Regent.    Up  to  this  time  the  title  of  Duke  had 
not  been  in  use  in  Scotland,  but  at  a  meeting  between 
the  Earl  of  Fife  and  Prince  David,  Earl  of  Carrick, 
with  the  English  John  of  Gaunt,  Duke  of  Lancaster, 
the  English  nobleman  claimed  certain  precedence  from 
his  superior  title.    This  was  not  relished  by  the  Prince 
and  his  uncle,  and  the  first  introduction  of  the  ducal 
title  into  Scotland  was  the  consequence,  the  Earl  of 
Carrick  being  created  Duke  of  Rothesay,  and  the  Earl 
of   Fife   becoming   Duke   of   Albany.     The   Duke   of 
Rothesay  was  of  wild  and  dissipated  habits,  his  levity 
of  conduct  giving  much  offense,  and  in  1402  occurred 
his    tragic    death,    the    guilt    for    which    is    generally 
attached  to  Albany.    The  historian,  Boece,  after  tell- 
ing of  the  death  of  the  Prince's  mother,  the  Queen, 
proceeds,  "Be  quhais  deith  succedit  gret  displesir  to 
hir  son,  David  Duk  of  Rothesay ;  for  during  hir  life 
he  was  haldin  in  virtews  and  honest  occupatioun,  eftir 
hir  deith  he  began  to  rage  in  all  maner  of  insolence." 
Boece  tells  how  the  King  sent  letters  to  his  brother, 
the  Duke  of  Albany,  to  "intertene  his  said  son  the 
Duk  of  Rothesay  and  to  leir  him   honest  and   civil 
maners."  According  to  tradition,  Albany  seems  to  have 
"leired"    him    manners    by    the    following    method. 
"The  Duk  of  Albany  tuk  the  Duk  of  Rothesay  and 

History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family      29 

brocht  him  to  Falkland  and  inclusit  him  in  the  tour 
thairof  without  ony  meit  or  drink."  In  fact,  starved 
him  to  death.  After  Rothesay's  death  Albany  was 
given  full  sway  by  the  feeble  king,  but  roused  to  a 
suspicion  of  his  ambitious  designs,  as  next  heir  to  the 
crown  if  the  king's  children  should  be  displaced,  the 
king  sent  his  only  surviving  son,  James,  then  in  his 
eleventh  year,  to  France  for  safety.  On  the  passage 
the  ship  was  captured  by  the  English,  and  the  Prince 
imprisoned  in  the  Tower  of  London.  Robert  III  died 
of  a  broken  heart,  and  Albany  was  confirmed  by  Par- 
liament, in  the  Regency.  He  continued  to  administer 
the  affairs  of  the  kingdom  until  his  death,  which  took 
place  at  Stirling  Castle  on  the  3rd  September,  1420, 
at  the  age  of  eighty-one. 

His  son,  Murdoch  Stewart,  second  Duke  of  Albany, 
was  known  during  his  father's  lifetime  as  the  Earl 
of  Fife.  Taken  prisoner  at  the  Battle  of  Homildon 
in  1402,  he  was  exchanged  for  Henry  Percy,  Duke  of 
Northumberland,  and  on  the  death  of  his  father,  in 
1420,  in  the  absence  of  James  I,  succeeded  as  Governor. 
Upon  King  James'  return  and  coronation  at  Scone,  the 
Duke  pierformed  the  ceremony  of  installing  him  on 
the  throne.  He  claimed  this  privilege  as  Earl  of  Fife, 
successor  of  Macduff  the  conqueror  of  Macbeth.  After 
James  I  was  in  power,  considering  the  Albany  faction 
a  cause  of  danger,  he,  in  1425,  ordered  the  arrest  of 
the  Duke,  and  of  his  younger  son  Alexander.  The 
eldest  son  of  Albany,  Walter,  had  already  been  im- 
prisoned on  the  Bass  Rock.  There  is  no  record  of 
any  charge  against  Albany  and  his  sons,  but  Walter 
the  eldest  son  was  executed  before  Stirling  Castle, 
on  24th  May,  1425,  and  the  next  day  Albany  himself, 
his  son  Alexander,  and  the  aged  Earl  of  Lennox 
shared    a   similar   fate   on   the    Heading   Hill.     The 

30      History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family 

youngest  son,  James,  escaped  to  the  Highlands  and 
collected  a  band  of  followers,  sacked  Dumbarton,  and 
killed,  among  others,  the  king's  uncle  Sir  John  Stewart 
of  Dundonald,  known  as  the  Red  Stewart.  He  then 
escaped  to  Ireland,  where  he  married  one  of  the  Mac 
Donalds,  their  son,  James,  being  the  ancestor  of  the 
Stewarts  of  Ardvoirlich.  The  king  took  vengeance  on 
those  of  James'  followers  captured  in  Scotland,  caus- 
ing them,  when  alive,  to  be  torn  limb  from  limb  by 

The  Wolf  of  Badenoch  is  the  name  by  which  the 
fourth  son  of  Robert  H  is  best  known  in  history. 
Alexander  Stewart,  Earl  of  Buchan,  was  nearly  seven 
feet  in  height,  of  enormous  strength,  and  his  atrocities 
and  almost  regal  hospitalities  give  a  fascination  to  an 
historic  figure.  The  outrage  which,  in  1390,  gained 
for  the  Wolf  everlasting  infamy,  was  the  raid  on 
Forres  and  Elgin.  He  had  no  children  by  his  wife, 
and  had  left  her,  to  live  with  another,  Mariota,  a 
daughter  of  Athyn.  By  her  he  had  several  sons,  and 
his  Countess  appealed  to  the  Bishop's  of  Moray  and 
Ross  for  redress.  In  revenge  the  Wolf  seized  upon 
some  lands  belonging  to  the  Bishop  of  Morav,  who 
excommunicated  him.  The  Wolf,  now  thoroughly 
exasperated,  sent  round  the  Fiery  Cross  and  gather- 
ing his  fierce  followers,  called  by  Wyntoun,  "Wyld, 
wykkyd  Hielandmen,"  he  swooped  down  on  Forres, 
which  he  burned,  with  the  Church  and  the  Arch- 
deacon's house.  He  then  proceeded  to  Elgin,  where  he 
arrived  on  the  feast  of  the  Blessed  Abbot  Botolph, 
in  June,  1390.  He  burned  the  Cathedral  city,  the 
parish  Church,  the  Maison  Dieu,  and  eighteen  of  the 
houses  of  the  Canons,  "and  what  is  most  grievously 
to  be  lamented,  the  noble  and  highly  adorned  Church 
of  Moray,  the  delight  of  the  country  and  ornament  of 
the  kingdom,  with  all  the  books,  charters  and  goods 

History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family      31 

of  the  countr}'-  placed  therein."  The  story  is,  that 
the  indemnification  obtained  by  the  See  was  that 
the  Wolf  stood  for  three  days  barefooted  at  the 
great  gate  of  Elgin  Cathedral.  This  must,  however, 
have  been  later,  for  so  autocratic  and  savage  was  the 
Wolf,  during  the  greater  part  of  his  life,  that  he 
governed  a  practically  independent  little  kingdom.  But, 
if  tradition  can  be  relied  on,  in  spite  of  the  record  of  his 
life,  he  died  in  the  very  richest  odour  of  sanctity  in  the 
year  1394,  and  was  buried  in  Dunkeld  Cathedral.  He 
had  five  natural  sons  by  Mariota,  the  daughter  of 
Athyn ;  Alexander ;  Sir  Andrew  of  Sandhauch  ;  Walter ; 
James ;  and  Duncan.  The  Earldom  of  Buchan  fell 
into  the  hands  of  the  Crown,  and  was  conferred,  in 
1406,  on  his  cousin  John  Stewart. 

The  eldest  natural  son,  Alexander  Stewart,  had  a 
more  brilliant  career  as  a  political  and  military  free 
lance  than  even  the  Wolf,  and  as  commander  on  the 
bloody  field  of  Harlaw,  in  141 1,  stayed  the  victorious 
and  ravaging  progress  of  Donald,  Lord  of  the  Isles, 
and  his  Highland  host.  Donald  of  the  Isles,  to 
maintain  his  claim  to  the  Earldoro  of  Ross,  with 
"Fifty  thousand  Hielanmen,  A  marching  to  Harlaw," 
invaded  the  country  south  of  the  mountains,  with  the 
intention  of  sacking  Aberdeen,  and  was  met  at  Harlaw 
by  Alexander  Stewart,  then  Earl  of  Mar,  at  the  head 
of  the  Lowlanders.  The  "Hielanmen"  lost  more  than 
nine  hundred  men,  and  the  Lowlanders  five  hundred; 
but  neither  side  could  claim  actual  superiority  in  the 
battle.    As  the  old  ballad  has  it, 

"On  Monandy  at  mornin'. 

The  battle  it  began, 
On  Saturday  at  gloamin' 

Ye'd  scarce  tell  wha  had  wan. 
And  sic  a  weary  buryin' 

32      History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family 

The  like  ye  never  saw 
As  there  was  the  Sunday  after  that 
On  the  muirs  down  by   Harlaw." 

Donald's  purpose  was  however  frustrated,  and  the 
victory  claimed  by  the  Earl  of  Mar  has  been  declared 
by  the  historian  Burton  to  have  done  more  for  the 
civilization  of  Scotland  than  even  the  victory  of 
Bannockburn.  Regarding  Alexander  Stewart's  mar- 
riage to  the  Countess  of  Mar,  the  story  is  told  that 
he  stormed  her  Castle  of  Kildrummie,  wed  her  by 
violence  or  persuasion,  and  carried  off  the  Earldom 
from  the  lawful  heirs.  But  the  story  goes  on  to 
tell,  that  in  order  to  palliate  his  conduct  he  later  pre- 
sented himself  at  the  Castle  gate  of  Kildrummie, 
and  surrendered  to  the  Countess  the  castle  and  all 
therein,  in  testimony  of  which  he  delivered  the  keys 
into  her  hand.  The  Countess,  holding  the  keys  in 
her  hand,  then  chose  Alexander  for  her  husband, 
and  on  free  marriage  gave  him  her  castle  and  the  Earl- 
dom of  Mar.  The  Countess  died  without  issue.  From 
141 1  until  his  death,  Alexander  Stewai^,  Earl  of 
Mar,  was  one  of  the  foremost  men  in  Scotland.  Bril- 
liant and  versatile  he  became  one  of  Scotland's  great- 
est captains,  statesmen  and  patriots.  Upon  his  death, 
in  1435,  the  title  and  estates  reverted  to  the  Crown. 
The  ancient  title  of  Earl  of  Athole  was  conferred  on 
Walter  Stewart,  the  second  son  of  Robert  II,  by  his 
second  wife  Euphemia  Ross.  He  was  engaged  in 
the  conspiracy  of  his  kinsman,  Sir  Robert  Graham, 
against  James  I,  one  of  the  objects  of  whichi  was  the 
placing  of  the  crown  on  the  head  of  Sir  Robert  Stew- 
art, the  Earl's  grandson,  who  was  Chamberlain  to  the 
king.  James  I  went  from  Edinburgh  to  Perth  to  keep 
Christmas,  1436,  with  the  Black  Friars  at  Perth.  On 
his  wav  thither,  at  the  Water  of  Leith,  he  was  met 

History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family      33 

by  a  Highland  wise-wife,  who  told  him,  "My  Lord 
the  King,  if  you  cross  this  water  you  will  never  return 
again  alive."  The  King,  however,  disregarded  her 
warning.  While  in  Perth,  the  King  took  up  residence 
in  the  Abbey  of  the  Black  Friars,  and  on  the  night 
appointed,  20th  February,  1437,  Sir  Robert  Stewart, 
the  Chamberlain,  placed  planks  across  the  moat  of  the 
Abbey,  also  unlocking  the  gates  and  doors  of  the 
Abbey,  and  Graham  and  his  followers,  amounting  to 
nearly  three  hundred  men,  entered  the  Abbey.  The 
King,  in  his  night  robe  and  slippers,  was  conversing 
with  the  Queen  and  her  ladies  before  retiring.  He 
had  spent  the  evening  with  the  nobles  and  ladies  of  the 
Court,  the  Earl  of  Athole  and  Sir  Robert  Stewart 
among  them.  The  Highland  sorceress  again  attempted 
to  warn  the  King,  but  was  refused  admittance  owing 
to  the  lateness  of  the  hour.  The  conspirators  were 
heard  approaching,  and  the  King  guessed  that  they 
were  coming  to  murder  him.  He  wrenched  up  a 
plank  in  the  floor,  and  hid  in  the  vault  below,  used  as  a 
sewer.  The  Queen  and  her  ladies  attempted  to  hold  the 
door  of  the  room  shut,  and  Catherine  Douglas  thrust 
her  arm  across  the  door  in  the  place  of  the  bar  which 
had  been  removed.  Soon  the  brave  Douglas'  arm  was 
broken,  and  the  conspirators  rushed  into  the  room,  but, 
not  finding  the  King,  would  have  left  the  apartment 
had  not  the  King  turned  impatient,  and  called  to  one 
of  the  ladies  to  help  him  out  of  the  hiding  place.  Then 
two  of  the  murderers  leapt  into  the  vault,  but  the  King 
though  unarmed,  put  up  so  brave  a  fight  that  Graham 
was  compelled  to  spring  down  and  thrust  his  sword 
through  the  King's  body.  Queen  Joanna  made  so 
strict  a  search  for  the  assassins  that  within  a  month 
most  of  them  were  in  prison.  Sir  Robert  Graham 
was  tortured  and  executed ;  the  Earl  of  Athole  be- 

34      History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family 

headed,  being  first  set  upon  the  pillory,  his  head  en- 
circled with  a  red  hot  crown  on  which  was  inscribed, 
"The  King  of  Traitors" ;  while  the  flesh  of  Sir  Robert 
Stewart  was  torn  from  his  body  with  pincers. 

The  fourth  Stewart  King,  James  II,  had  three 
younger  sons,  Alexander  Stewart,  Duke  of  Albany, 
whose  son  and  successor  died  in  France  without  law- 
ful issue ;  David  Stewart,  Earl  of  Moray,  who  died 
young;  and  John  Stewart,  Earl  of  Mar,  who  was 
murdered  in  Craigmillar  Castle. 

The  two  younger  sons  of  James  III  were,  James 
Stewart,  Duke  of  Ross  and  Archbishop  of  St.  An- 
drews, who  died  at  the  early  age  of  28,  and  John 
Stewart,  Earl  of  Mar. 


WING  to  the  fact  that  the  Chief  or  head 
of  the  Stewarts  was  also  the  occupant  of 
the  Throne,  the  relationship  between  the 
various  branches  or  members  of  the  family 
and  the  head  of  the  house  somewhat  differed  from  the 
usual  ties  connecting  the  clansmen  with  their  chieftain. 
The  distinctive  quality  of  the  clan  was,  in  a  consider- 
able degree,  lost  in  a  more  general  national  sentiment. 
The  family,  however,  had  their  distinguishing  badge 
and  tartan.  The  badge  of  the  original  Stewarts  was 
the  darag,  or  oak,  the  superstitious  Highlanders  fore- 
seeing ill  fortune  from  the  choice  of  an  emblem  not  an 
evergreen.  The  cluaran,  or  thistle,  became  the  badge 
of  the  Royal  Stuarts  and  the  national  emblem. 

"Hail !  Emblem  proud  to  Scotland  long  endeared, 
Begirt  with  threat'ning  points  which  never  failed. 
When  England's  sons  her  thorn-couched  spears 

Thou  shook'st  thy  bearded  head  and  still  pre- 

The  usual  family  tartan  is  the  well  known  red-colored 
pattern  commonly  known  as  the  Royal  Stuart  Tartan, 
The  effect  of  a  large  body  of  men  crossing  a  hill, 
clothed  in  the  red  Stuart  tartan,  contrasting  with  the 
dark  colored  heath,  has  been  described  "as  if  the  hill 
were  on  fire."  Four  other  tartans  belonging  to  the 
family  are  known  as.  The  Dress  Tartan,  containing 
more  white  than  red ;  The  Old  Tartan ;  The  Hunting 
Tartan ;  and  the  Bonnie  Prince  Charlie  Tartan. 
The  Stewarts  of  Appin,  the  Clan  Appin,  together 


3G      History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family 

with  the  Athole  branches  of  the  family,  were  con- 
sidered in  the  Highlands  as  forming  the  Clan  Stewart. 
The  district  of  Appin  forms  the  north-west  corner  of 
Arg_)  llshire,  a  small  rivulet,  called  Con  Ruagh  or  red 
bog,  dividing  the  lands  of  the  Stewarts  of  Appin  from 
the  Campbells.  The  Stewart  Chief  of  the  Clan  Appin 
was  known  as  Mac  Iain  Stiubhart  nan  Appin,  and  the 
Ettrick  Shepherd's  ballad,  "The  Stewarts  of  Appin," 
runs  thus, 

"I  sing  of  a  land  that  was  famous  of  yore, 
The  land  of  green  Appin,  the  ward  of  the  flood, 
Where  every  grey  cairn  that  broods  over  the 

Marks  graves  of  the  royal,  the  valiant,  or  good. 
The  land  where  the  strains  of  grey  Ossian  were 

The  land  of  fair  Selma,  and  reign  of  Fingal, 
And  late  of  a  race,  that  with  tears  must  be  named, 
The  noble  Clan  Stewart,  the  bravest  of  all." 

The  first  of  the  Chiefs  of  Appin  was  Dugald  Stewart, 
who,  as  already  told,  was  the  son  of  Sir  John  Stewart, 
Lord  of  Lorn  and  Innermeath,  by  a  daughter  of  Mac- 
Laren  of  Ardveich, 

In  145 1,  Sir  John  executed  a  deed  granting  to  John 
MacDougal  of  Lorn  and  his  son  John  Keir  MacDougal, 
certain  lands,  including  the  Castle  of  Dunolly  and  the 
guardianship  and  pupilage  of  his  heirs.  John  Mac- 
Dougal, was  Sir  John's  nearest  relative  of  the  family 
of  Mac  Dougal,  as  well  as  chief  of  the  clan,  and  it  is 
possible  that  the  Lord  of  Lorn  desired  by  his  gener- 
osity to  his  kinsman,  and  the  trust  he  reposed  in  him, 
to  secure  his  support  and  that  of  the  clan  MacDougal, 
for  his  youthful  son,  Dugald,  then  about  six  years  old, 
whom  he  intended  to  make  his  heir.  We  have  seen 
that  Dugald's  mother  was  of  the  clan  MacLaren.  Sir 
John  Stewart  had  been  at  the  tryst  at  Crieff,  it  being 

History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family      37 

customary  for  the  chiefs  to  attend  these  trysts,  where 
many  affairs  of  business  and  politics  were  arranged, 
and,  on  his  return,  he  met  in  Glenfillan  with  a  wedding 
party  from  Ardveich.  He  joined  the  party  and  became 
enamoured  of  the  daughter  of  the  house.  Dugald,  their 
son,  was  born  in  1445,  and  records  say  that  he  resided 
at  Ardveich  until   1463,  when  his  father  sent  him  a 
message  directing  him  to  come  to  DunstaflFnage  Castle 
with  his  mother.     They  set  out  as  bridal  p*arty,  with 
pipes  and  banners.     The  MacLaren  tradition  records 
that   as    Dugald   was    on    the    way   to   Dunstaflfnagie 
with  his  mother  and  the  bridal  party,  he  was  met  by 
an  aged  Highland  woman,  who  had  the  gift  of  second 
sight,  and  who  asked  him,  "Whither  are  you  bound 
for  today?"  to  which  Dugald  replied,  "I  am  going  to 
receive  some  justice."     To  this  the  aged   dame  an- 
swered, "  I  have  had  a  dream  that,  as  you  have  been 
for  eighteen  years  known  as  Dugald,  the  illegitimate 
of  Ardveich,  so  will  you  for  twenty  eight  years  be 
known  as  the  head  of  the  Stewarts  of  Lorn."    It  was 
in  1469  that  Dugald's  uncle  Walter,  made  over  to  the 
Earl  of  Argyll  his  alleged  claim  to  Lorn,  and  Dugald, 
till  his  death  in  1497,  was  the  acknowledged  head  of 
the  Stewarts  of  Lorn,  a  period  of  twenty-eight  years. 
Shortly  before  the  time  Dugald  and  his  mother  set 
out  for  DunstaflFnage,  Alan   MacDougal,  an   illegiti- 
mate son  of  MacDougal,  had  joined  a  conspiracy  in 
opposition  to  his  brother,  John  Keir  MacDougal,  chief 
of   the   clan,    and    who    had    remained    loyal    to    the 
crown.     It  became  well  known  that  Sir  John  Stew- 
art of  Lorn  had  sent  for  the  daughter  of  MacLaren 
of  Ardveich  in  order  that  their  marriage  might  legiti- 
mate their  son.     The  possession  of  Lorn  by  a  just 
and  powerful  noble  like  Sir  John,  and  the  probability 
of  his  being  succeeded  by  the  youthful  Dugald,  backed 

88     History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family 

by  his  mother's  clan,  was  no  doubt  a  great  obstacle 
to  the  plans  of  Alan  MacDougal  and  his  confederates ; 
and  according  to  the  traditions  of  the  MacLaren  fam- 
ily, Alan  stabbed  Sir  John  in  DunstafTnage  Castle 
shortly  before  the  arrival  of  the  bridal  party.  The 
tradition  of  the  Stewarts  is,  that  the  murder  was 
committed  when  Sir  John  was  actually  on  his  way 
from  the  Castle  to  the  Chapel,  which  was  close  at  hand, 
where  the  marriage  was  to  be  performed.  The  mur- 
derers fled,  and  Dugald  would  have  pursued,  but  the 
priest  pointed  out  that  no  time  was  to  be  lost  in 
having  the  marriage  completed,  as  Sir  John  was  mor- 
tally wounded.  The  rite  was  accordingly  performed, 
the  priest  assisting  the  dying  Sir  John  to  place  the 
ring  on  the  bride's  finger.  Alan  MacDougal  got  pos- 
session of  Dunstaffnage  Castle,  whether  in  the  con- 
fusion consequent  on  the  murder,  or  after  the  battle 
with  Dugald  at  Leac-a-dotha,  is  not  known.  Dugald 
Stewart's  succession,  in  1463  was  not  a  peaceable  one. 
Fie  hastened  to  Strathearn  and  Balquidder  to  raise 
the  MacLarens,  and  having  been  joined  by  his  father's 
retainers  and  followers  from  Lorn,  marched  to  Leac- 
a-dotha,  at  the  head  of  Loch  Awe.  A  battle  ensued 
in  which  Dugald  was  defeated  after  a  fierce  and  bloody 
fight.  Dugald  retreated  with  his  followers  into  Upper 
Lorn,  or  Appin.  Many  of  the  Stewarts  then  made 
the  exodus  known  as  the  "Inveich  mor,"  or  pfreat 
flitting,  from  the  southern  part  of  Lorn  to  Upper 
Lorn  or  Appin,  following  the  fortunes  of  Dugald,  as 
chief  of  the  clan.  Reinforced  by  these  clansmen,  Du- 
gald avenged  his  father's  death  at  a  battle,  called  the 
battle  of  Stale,  in  which  Alan  MacDougal,  his  father's 
murderer  was  killed. 

A    compromise   was   now   entered   into,   by   which 
Dugald's  uncle,  Walter,  retained  Innermeath ;   Lorn 

History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family      39 

was    retained    by    Argyll,    who   gave    Glenurchy   his 
share ;  and  Dugald  was  established  in  Appin.  Though 
Dugald   Stewart  by  this   enforced   compromise  gave 
up  the  Lordship  of  Lorn,  his  descendants  were  recog- 
nized as  representing  the  noble  house  of  Stewart  of 
Lorn,  and  continued  to  bear  the  arms  of  Lorn.     Du- 
gald  held   his   lands   of  Appin   without   molestation, 
and  in  1497,  or  1498,  led  his  followers  to  the  aid  of 
the  MacLarens  against  the  MacDonalds  of  Kepp^och. 
In  the  battle  which  ensued  Dugald  was  killed.     He 
had  married  a  daughter  of  MacDougal  of  Nether  Lorn, 
a  marriage  probably  arranged  to  stop  the  blood  feud 
between  the  two  families,  and  had  three  sons.     The 
eldest,  Duncan  his  successor,  never  married,  and  was 
succeeded   by   the   second   son,  Alan,  who  with   five 
sons  accompanied  King  James  IV  to  the  disastrous 
field  of  Flodden.    Alan  died-  at  an  advanced  age  about 
the  year  1562.     He  had  married  a  daughter  of  Cam- 
eron of  Lochiel,  and  had  five  sons,  Duncan  the  fourth 
of  Appin ;  John,  of  whom  the  first  Stewarts  of  Strath- 
garry;  Dugald,  of  whom  the  Stewarts  of  Achnacone; 
James,  of  whom  Fasnacloich  ;  and  Alexander,  of  whom 
Invernahyle.    Duncan  married  Janet  Gordon;  and  had 
one    son,   John,   called   from   his   complexion   and   his 
maternal  descent,   Gordonich-baan,   the   fair   Gordon. 
He  married,  first,  Katherine,  daughter  of  John  Camp- 
bell  (Gorm),  first  of  Lochnell,  by  whom  he  had  one 
son,  Duncan  his  successor;  and  secondly,  a  daughter 
of  MacDougal  of  Muidart  who  bore  him  a  son  John, 
afterwards  of  Ardsheal.    Duncan  succeeded  his  father 
in  1595.     He  was  succeeded  by  his  son,  also  Duncan, 
who  was  followed  by  his  son,  again  Duncan,  who  took 
the  field  at  the  head  of  the  Clan  Stewart  to  join  the 
Marquess  of  Montrose  at  the   Battle  of  Inverlochy, 
164s,  where  the  Clan  behaved  with  great  valor,  in- 

40     History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family 

spired,  as  Hogg  says,  by  their  loyalty  to  the  head  of 
the  House  of  Stewart,  and  by  their  desire  to  avenge 
the  many  injuries  they  had  sustained  from  Argyll, 
who  was  utterly  defeated  with  the  loss  of  fifteen  hun- 
dred men. 

The  Marching  Song  of  the  Clan  Stewart  is  said  to 
tiave  been  first  used  when  the  Clan  was  marching  to 
Inverloch y,  and  has  been  translated  as  follows : 

"The  heath  clad  Ben  we'll  soon  ascend, 
Through  Glen  Laoigh  we'll  soon  descend, 
Our  points  of  steel  we'll  swiftly  send, 

Thro'  every  loon  that  bars  us. 
We  will  up  and  march  away. 
We  will  up  and  march  away, 
We  will  up  and  march  away, 

Daring  let  of  all  men. 

O'er  the  hills  we'll  speed  along, 
Through  Glencoe  unwearied  on, 
Our  King  the  burden  of  our  song. 
Asking  leave  of  no  man. 

To  Glengarry  and  Lochiel 
Ever  with  us,  true  and  leal ; 
Keppoch,  too,  who  seeks  our  weal. 
Is  there  in  spite  of  all  men. 

MacPhersons  come,  in  deeds  not  small, 
MacKenzies  also  at  our  call. 
Whose  battle  frenzy  will  appal. 
And  fill  our  foes  with  awe  then. 

MacGregors,  fierce  when  man  to  man. 
Join  with  the  Ro}al  Stewart  clan; 
Blow  up  the  pip€s,  march  proudly  on, 

Daring  let  of  all  men. 
We  will  up  and  march  away, 
We  will  up  and  march  away. 
We  will  up  and  march  away. 
Daring  lee  of  all  men." 

History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family      41 

The   Chief   of   Appin   was   forfaulted   in   person   and 
estate,  but  the  forfeiture  was,  of  course,  cancelled  on 
the  accession  of  Charles  II.  He  married  Jean,  daughter 
of  Campbell  of  Glenurchy,  but  had  no  male  issue,  his 
lands  and  the  Chiefship  passing  on  his  death,  about 
1685,  to  his  nephew  Robert  Stewart.     Robert  joined 
Dundee,,  and   is   believed   to   have   himself   fought   at 
Killiecrankie,   1689,  although  the  Clan  did  not  come 
up  in  time  for  the  Battle.     He  was  attainted,  taken 
prisoner    by    the    Governor    of    Inverloch}',    and    sent 
prisoner    to    Glasgow,    but    was    released.      He    was, 
however,  at  the  famous  hunting  party  of  the  Earl  of 
Mar,  27th  August,   171 5,  on  the   Braes  of  Mar,  and 
took  the  field  with  two  hundred  and  fifty  men  in  sup- 
port of  James  Stuart,  the  Chevalier  St.  George,     He 
fought  with  the  Clan  at  the  Battle  of  Sheriffmuir  on 
the  13th  November,  was  for  a  second  time  attainted, 
but  took  refuge  abroad,  where  he  died  between   1730 
and  1739,  the  date  is  in  doubt,  and  was  succeeded  by 
his  son,  Dugald  to  whom  the  estate  was  restored.  Du- 
gald  v/as  a  boy  of  tender  years  when  Prince  Charles 
Edward  unfurled  the  Ro  al  Standard  in  Glenfinnan  in 
1745,  and  the  Clan,  numbering  four  hundred  broad- 
swords, was  consequently  led  by  Charles  Stewart  the 
fifth  of  Ardsheal.  Dugald,  was  the  last  Baron  of  Appin ; 
he  had  no  male  issue,  and,  in  1765,  sold  the  estate  of 
Appin.     The  representation  of  the  Stewarts  of  Lorn 
and  Appin  then  devolved  upon  the  head  of  the  family 
of  Stewart  of  Ardsheal. 

The  first  of  Ardsheal  was  John  Stewart,  son  of 
John,  the  fifth  of  Appin,  born  of  his  second  wife,  a 
daughter  of  MacDonald  of  Muidart.  Duncan,  second 
of  Ardslieal,  son  of  John,  was  steadfast  in  his  lo  alty 
to  Char1e<^  I  and  the  Stuart  cause,  and  fought  as  an 
officer  with  the  Clan  Appin  which  followed  the  Mar- 

42      History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family 

quess  of  Montrose.  A  story  connected  with  CharleiS 
Stewart,  the  fifth  of  Ardsheal,  describes  him  as  a  man 
of  great  personal  strength  and  a  fine  swordsman.  In 
an  encounter  with  Rob  Roy  in  Balquidder,  he  wounded 
the  celebrated  freebooter,  who  thereupon  threw  his 
sword  into  Lochvoil,  declaring  that  it  was  the  first 
time  it  had  failed  him,  and  that  Ardsheal  was  the 
first  man  who  had  drawn  blood  from  him.  In  1745, 
Stewart  of  Ardsheal  led  the  Clan  Appin  when  they 
went  out  with  Bonnie  Prince  Charlie.  The  Stewarts 
of  Clan  Appin  fought  at  Prestonpans,  Clifton,  Falkirk 
and  Culloden,  and  many  gave  their  lives  for  the 
Stuart  Prince.  Chambers  sa}s  that  the  Clan  suffered 
at  Culloden  more  than  any  of  the  Highland  Clans. 
The  Ardsheal  family  alone  lost  eight  killed  and  three 
wounded  at  this  Battle.  After  the  fight,  Charles 
Stewart  of  Ardsheal  succeeded  in  reaching  Appin, 
where  he  lay  concealed  in  a  cave,  still  called  Ardsheal's 
Cave,  being  supplied  with  food  by  a  little  girl  who 
daily  drove  out  a  few  lambs  on  the  hill,  and  watched 
her  opportunity  to  communicate  with  her  Chief.  He 
eventuall}^  escaped  to  France,  where  he  died  in  1757. 
Alexander,  his  son  succeeded  him,  but  died  without 
issue,  being  followed  by  his  brother  Duncan,  who 
fought  for  the  Crown  in  the  American  War  of  Inde- 
pendence, and  obtained  the  restoration  of  his  paternal 
estate.  From  him  the  succeeding  heads  of  the  family 

The  Stewarts  of  Strathgarry  descended  from  John 
Stewart,  second  son  of  Alan  Stewart,  third  of  Appin. 
John  received  from  his  father  the  lands  of  Strath- 
garr^-,  in  Athole,  after  the  return  of  Alan  and  his 
five  sons  from  Flodden,  in  1513.  Stewart  of  Strath- 
garry, about  the  end  of  the  sixteenth  centurv,  took 
possession  of  lands  at  Rannoch  which  had  been  held 

History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family      43 

by  a  MacDonald,  and  a  party  of  the  Clan  MacDonald 
surprised  Strathgarry,  whom  they  slew  for  dispossess- 
ing their  kinsman.  At  a  meeting  of  the  Stewarts  of 
Appin,  Athole  and  Balquidder,  at  the  Bridge  of  Kelt- 
ney,  they  agreed  to  avenge  his  death.  His  widow 
also  procured  letters  of  fire  and  sword  against  the 
MacDonalds  which  she  obtained  by  going  to  Stirling-, 
and  showing  her  husband's  bloody  shirt  to  the  Privy 
Council.  The  MacDonalds  were  surrounded  by  the 
Stewarts,  and  a  number  killed,  among  whom  were 
the  Laird  of  Glencoe  and  his  brother.  Their  heads 
were  cut  off  as  proof  to  the  Privy  Council  that  their 
orders  had  been  duly  carried  out.  The  messenger 
who  carried  the  heads  to  Stirling  placed  them  in  a 
barrel,  which  he  occasionally  shook,  and  as  the  heads 
knocked  against  each  other,  cried  in  Gaelic,  "Can't 
you  agree?"  In  the  eighteenth  century  the  Strath- 
garry lands  were  sold  to  a  cadet  of  the  Invernahyle 
branch  of  the  family. 

Achnacone  means  the  "field  of  dogs,"  and  was  an 
old  hunting  seat  of  the  ancient  Lords  of  Lorn.  Du- 
g-ald  Stewart,  first  of  Achnacone,  was  third  son  of 
Alan  Stewart,  third  of  Appin.  The  lands  were  given 
to  Dugald  by  his  father,  soon  after  Flodden. 

The  Fasnacloich  branch  of  the  family  also  descended 
from  a  son  of  Alan  Stewart,  third  of  Appin.  James 
Stev/art,  his  fourth  son,  received  the  lands  of  Fas- 
nacloich from  his  father  after  their  return  from  Flod- 
den. Fasnacloich  is  situated  at  the  foot  of  Glen 
Creran,  and  the  name  signifies  a  field  of  stones  or 
crags.  Alexander  Stewart,  third  son  of  John,  the  sixth 
of  Fasnacloich,  was  present  at  Killiecrankie,  1689, 
also  at  Sheriffmuir  in  171 5.  He  was  too  old,  seventy- 
three,  to  join  Prince  Charles  Edward  in  1745,  but 
took  an  active  part  in  raising  the  Clan  Appin.  Charles 

44      History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family 

Stewart,  only  son  of  Alexander,  was  attached  to  the 
person  of  the  Prince  as  Purse  Bearer,  and  was  at 
Prestonpans,  Falkirk  and  Culloden.  James  Stewart, 
eighth  of  Fasnacloich,  was  also  present  with  the 
Clan  Appin  at  Culloden,  where  two  of  the  family 
were   killed   and  four  wounded. 

The  first  of  Invernahyle,  Alexander  Stewart,  called 
Tiochail,  or  the  Peaceful,  was  the  fifth  and  youngest 
son  of  Alan,  third  of  Appin,  and  received  from  his 
father  the  lands  of  Invernahyle,  so  called  from  their 
situation  at  the  mouth  of  the  Hyle,  on  the  return 
from  Flodden.  It  is  told  that  Alexander  Stewart, 
early  one  summer  morning,  went  to  an  island  called 
Eilean-'n-Stalcair,  and  not  apprehending  any  danger 
laid  his  Lochaber  axe  by  his  side.  A  deadly  feud  then 
existed  between  his  family  and  the  Campbells  of 
Dunstaffnage,  and  this  very  morning  Cailean  Uaine, 
Green  Colin,  brother  to  Campbell  of  Dunstafifnage, 
landed  on  the  island  with  a  party  of  men.  Cailean 
Uaine  came  suddenly  upon  Invernah\le,  and  seized 
hold  of  the  axe,  exclaiming,  "This  is  a  good  axe,  if 
it  had  a  good  handle  to  it."  Alexander  Stewart 
immediately  replied,  "Has  it  not  that?"  laying  his 
hand  on  it.  During  the  struggle  which  followed, 
Alexander  was  murdered  by  Colin's  men.  His  son 
Donald  was  hidden  by  his  nurse  from  his  father's 
murderers,  and  brought  up  by  her  and  her  husband, 
the  smith  or  armorer  of  the  Clan  MacDonald.  Don- 
ald, as  he  grew  up,  was  noted  for  his  great  strength, 
and  became  known  as  Donuill-nan-ord,  or  Donald 
of  the  Hammers.  It  is  said,  he  could  take  in  each 
hand  one  of  the  large  hammers,  each  of  which  re- 
quired the  full  strength  of  an  ordinary  man,  and 
wield  both  at  the  same  time  without  cflfort.  He 
could  also  dive  in  the  river  and  bring  up  a  salmon 

History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family      45 

with  his  hands.  He  attacked  Dunstaffnage,  and  after 
several  fights  Cailean  Uaine  and  seven  Campbells 
v^^ere  killed.  This  caused  another  feud  between  the 
Campbells  and  the  young  Chief  Donald,  who  con- 
tinued to  make  further  attacks  on  the  Clan  Campbell. 

"Donald  of  the  Smithy,  the  son  of  the  Hammer 
Filled  the  banks  of  Lochawe  with  mourning  and 

As  the  Chief  of  Appin,  Alan  Stewart,  was  a  very 
old  man,  and  his  eldest  son,  Duncan,  dead,  the  Clan 
Appin  was  led  by  Donald  at  the  Battle  of  Pinkie, 
in  1547.  On  their  homeward  march  passing  through 
Menteith,  the  Clan  found  a  wedding  feast  prepared 
in  one  of  the  houses  of  the  Earl  of  Menteith's  tenants. 
Being  hungry,  the  Clan  disposed  of  the  feast,  and 
were  pursued  by  the  Grahams,  one  of  whom  taunted 
the  Stewarts. 

"Yellow  haired  Stewarts,  of  smartest  deeds, 
Who  could  grab  at  the  kale  in  your  sorest  needs." 

One  of  the  Stewarts  shot  the  rhymer  with  an  arrow, 

"If  smartness  of  deeds  is  ours  by  descent 
Then  I  draw — and  to  piierce  you  this  arrow  is 

A  fight  naturally  followed  in  which  the  Earl  of  Men- 
teith and  many  of  his  men  were  killed.  The  family 
of  Invernahyle  was  out  both  in  1715  and  1745,  and 
in  the  Battle  of  Culloden  had  four  killed  and  twelve 

The  Stewarts  of  Athole  consist  almost  entirely  of 
the  descendants,  by  his  five  illegitimate  sons,  of  Sir 
Alexander  Stewart,  Earl  of  Buchan,  The  Wolf  of 
Badenoch,  fourth  son  of  Robert  II  by  his  first  wife. 

46     History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family 

One  of  his  natural  sons,  Duncan,  whose  disposition 
was  as  ferocious  as  his  father's,  at  the  head  of  a  large 
number  of  the  clan,  armed  with  sword  and  targe, 
came  down  from  the  range  of  hills  which  divides  the 
counties  of  Aberdeen  and  Forfar,  and  began  to  devas- 
tate the  countr}'  and  murder  the  inhabitants.  Sir 
Walter  Ogilvy,  Sheriff  of  Angus,  Sir  Patrick  Gray  and 
Sir  David  Lindsay  of  Glenesk  collected  a  force  to 
repel  them,  and  a  desperate  conflict  took  place  near 
the  water  of  Isla,  in  which  the  Stewarts  were  over- 
powered, and  the  greater  part  of  them  slain. 

Another  of  the  Wolf  of  Badenoch's  natural  sons, 
James  Stewart,  was  the  ancestor  of  the  family  of 
Garth,  from  which  proceed  almost  all  the  other  Athole 
Stewarts.  According  to  tradition,  a  battle  is  said  to 
have  been  fought  in  Glenlyon,  between  the  M'lvers, 
who  claimed  it  as  their  territory,  and  Stewart  of 
Garth,  commonly  called  "The  Fierce  Wolf,"  which 
terminated  in  the  utter  defeat  of  the  M'lvers,  and 
their  expulsion  from  the  district.  The  possessions  of 
the  Athole  Stewarts  lay  mainly  on  the  north  side  of 
Loch  Tay. 

The  Stewarts  of  Ardvoirlich,  Perthshire,  descended 
from  James  Stewart,  called  James  the  Gross,  fourth 
and  only  surviving  son  of  Murdoch,  Duke  of  Albany, 
Regent  of  Scotland.  The  third  son  of  James  the 
Gross,  also  James,  was  the  immediate  ancestor  of  the 
Ardvoirlich  branch.  A  descendant,  another  James 
Stewart,  rendered  himself  notorious  by  the  assassina- 
tion of  his  friend,  Lord  Kilpont,  son  of  the  Earl  of 
Airth  and  Menteith.  Lord  Kilpont,  had  joined  the 
Marquess  of  Montrose  in  1644.  It  is  said,  James 
Stewart  wishing  to  ingratiate  himself  with  the  Coven- 
anters had  formed  a  plan  to  slay  Montrose,  but  wished 
the  assistance  of  Lord  Kilpont,  who  indignantly  re- 

History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family      47 

jected  the  proposal.  Stewart  alarmed  lest  Kilpont 
might  report  the  matter,  drew  his  dirk  and  killed 
him.  This  took  place  in  Montrose's  camp,  near  Collace, 
and  Stewart  fled  and  joined  Argyll,  then  in  arms 
against  Montrose.  Preserved  at  Ardvoirlich  for  cen- 
turies, a  lump  of  pure  white  rock  crystal  bound  with 
four  bands  of  silver  and  known  by  the  name  of  the 
Clach  Dearg  of  Ardvoirlich,  or  Red  Stone  of  Ard- 
voirlich, from  its  red  tinge  on  being  held  to  the 
light,  was  long  considered  to  have  magical  properties, 
and  a  sure  cure  for  cattle  if  they  were  given  to  drink 
the  water  in  which  the  Clach  Dearg  had  been  dipped. 

The  ancestor  of  the  Stewarts  of  Grandtully,  Perth- 
shire, was  James  Stewart  of  Peristoun  and  Warwick- 
hill,  fourth  son  of  Sir  John  Stewart  of  Bonkyl,  second 
son  of  Alexander,  the  fourth  Lord  High  Steward  of 

John  Stewart,  the  first  of  Urrard,  was  a  son  of 
Robert  Stewart  of  Fincastle,  lineally  descended  from 
John  Stewart,  one  of  the  progenitors  of  the  Athole 
Stewarts,  and  fourth  natural  son  of  the  Wolf  of 
Badenoch,  son  of  King  Robert  II. 

The  first  Baronet  of  Coltness  was  Sir  James  Stew- 
art, second  son  of  James  Stewart  of  Allanton.  The 
third  Baronet,  Sir  James  Denham  Steuart,  having 
been  introduced  to  Prince  Charles  Edward  at  Rome, 
joined  the  Prince  on  his  arrival  in  Edinburgh  in  1745. 
The  Prince  dispatched  him  on  a  mission  to  the  French 
Court,  where  he  was  at  the  time  of  the  Battle  of 
Culloden.  Being  excepted  in  the  Act  of  Indemnity, 
he  resided  abroad  for  eighteen  years,  returning  to 
Scotland  in  1763. 

The  Stewarts  of  Drumin,  Banffshire,  and  later  of 
Belladrum,  Invernessshire,  trace  their  descent  from 
Robert  II.     .Sir  Walter  Stewart  of  Strathaven  was  a 

48      History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family 

natural  son  of  Alexander,  the  Wolf  of  Badenoch,  4th 
son  of  the  King,  and  was  knighted  at  the  Battle 
of  Harlaw  in  141 1.  His  son,  Sir  Walter  Stewart,  ob- 
tained the  lands  of  Drumin,  in  1471. 

The  Stewarts  of  Binny  descended  from  Sir  Robert 
Stewart  of  Torbolton  and  Cruickston,  second  son  of 
Walter,  the  third  Steward  of  Scotland.  They  were 
previously  designated  of  Torbane  and  Raiss,  Halrig 
and  Shawood. 

The  Stewarts  of  Physgill  and  Glenturk,  Wigtown- 
shire, descend  from  John  Stewart,  second  son  of  Sir 
Alexander  Stewart  of  Garlies. 

The  family  of  Stewart,  now  Shaw-Stewart,  of  Black- 
hall  and  Greenock,  Renfrewshire,  took  descent  from 
Sir  John  Stewart,  one  of  the  natural  sons  of  Robert 
III.  From  his  father,  the  King,  Sir  John  received 
charters  of  the  lands  of  Ardgowan,  Blackball  and 
Auchingoun.  Sir  Archibald  Stewart  of  Blackball, 
the  seventh  in  descent  from  Sir  John,  was  created  a 
Baronet  in   1667. 

The  Stewarts  of  Glen  Ogle  are  descendants  of 
Appin ;  the  family  of  Tonderghie,  Wigtownshire,  is  a 
branch  of  the  noble  house  of  Galloway ;  and  the  old 
families  of  Baldonan,  Annat,  Gartnafuaroe,  and  the 
original  Stewarts  of  Glenbuckie  all  descended  from 
James  Stewart,  son  of  Murdoch,  second  Duke  of 

The  Balqiiidder  Stewarts  derived  their  origin  from 
illegitimate  branches  of  the  Albany  family. 

The  Stewarts  of  Ballintoy  took  descent  from 
Archibald  Stewart  of  Largayan,  who,  in  1544,  was  an 
influential  leader  in  the  rebellion  which  Matthew* 
Stewart,  Earl  of  Lennox  organized  in  opposition  to 
the  Regency  of  Arran,  during  the  reign  of  Mary, 
Queen  of  Scots.    On  the  failure  of  that  movement  he 

History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family      49 

was  forfeited,  and  his  lands  sold.  His  sons  emigrated 
to  Ireland  about  the  year  1560.  James  Stewart,  one 
of  the  first  settlers,  left  two  sons,  Ninian  and  David. 
The  place  of  settlement  is  said  to  have  been  Dun- 
severick,  from  whence  the  family  removed  to  Ballin- 
toy.  The  Stewarts  of  Tynne  and  Donegal  emigrated 
from  Scotland  to  Ireland  shortly  after  this  period, 
and  the  Stewarts  of  Drumbridge  also  descended  from 
Scottish  stock.  Other  branches  of  the  family  in  Ire- 
land are  mentioned  in  a  later  chapter. 

Steuart  of  AUanton,  an  ancient  family  in  Lanark- 
shire, lineally  descended  from  Sir  Robert  Stewart  of 
Daldowie,  sixth  son  of  Sir  John  Stewart  of  Bonkyl, 
son  of  Alexander  the  fourth  Lord  High  Steward  of 
Scotland.  Sir  John  bestowed,  in  1290,  the  estate  of 
Daldowie  in  Clydesdale  on  his  son,  Sir  Robert,  who 
fought  at  Bannockburn,  and  with  three  of  his  brothers. 
Sir  Alan,  Sir  Walter  and  Sir  Hugh,  accompanied  Ed- 
ward Bruce  to  Ireland  in  13 15.  From  Alan  Stewart 
of  Daldowie,  who  was  killed  in  1385  in  battle  against 
the  English,  descended  James  Stewart  of  Allanton 
who  had  two  sons.  Sir  Walter,  born  in  1606,  and  Sir 
James  of  Coltness,  twice  Lord  Provost  of  Edinburgh. 
Sir  Walter  Stewart  of  Allanton  married  Margaret, 
daughter  of  Sir  James  Hamilton  of  Broomhill.  It  is 
recorded  that  Oliver  Cromwell,  in  1650,  after  the 
Battle  of  Dunbar,  halted  at  Allanton  House  where  he 
was  hospitably  entertained  by  Lady  Stewart,  and 
where  he  passed  the  night.  Sir  Walter,  being  a 
Royalist,  took  care  to  be  out  of  the  way,  but  Crom- 
well courteously  inquired  after  him,  and  observed  that 
his  mother  was  of  the  Stewart  family,  so  that  he 
alwa-  s  felt  a  kindness  for  the  name.  The  spelling 
Steuart  seems  to  have  been  first  used  by  William  who 
succeeded  his  father  Sir  Walter  Stewart,  Kt.,  in  1672. 

50     History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family 

The  family  name  is  now  Seton-Steuart  as  told  in  a 
later  chapter  relating  to  the  present  heads  of  the 
various  families. 

The  ancestor  of  the  branch  of  Steuart  of  Ballechin 
was  Sir  John  Steuart  of  Sticks,  in  Glenquaich,  Perth- 
shire, the  natural  son  of  King  James  II  of  Scotland. 
He  received  a  charter  of  lands  from  King  James  III, 
dated  nth  December,  i486,  and  a  charter  from  James 
IV,  dated  ist  August,  1494.  His  successor,  William 
Steuart,  died  soon  after  his  father,  when  the  suces- 
sion  devolved  upon  his  brother,  John  Steuart,  who, 
in  1556,  acquired  the  various  lands  comprising  the 
barony  of  Ballechin. 

The  family  of  Steuart  of  Tanachie  take  descent 
from  Andrew  Steuart,  the  first  of  Tanachie  son  of  Sir 
Walter  Steuart,  legitimated  son  of  Sir  Andrew  Stew- 
art of  Strathaven ;  while  the  Auchlunkart  estates  came 
through  Patrick  Steuart  who  married  his  cousin  Eliza- 
beth, daughter  of  Alexander  Stewart  of  Auchlunkart, 
an  estate  which  came  into  the  family  by  marriage 
with  the  heiress  of  Innes  of  Auchlunkart. 

The  family  of  Steuart  of  Dalguise,  Perthshire  de- 
scended from  Sir  John  Stewart  of  Arntullie  and  Card- 
ne\  s,  also  designed  of  Dowallie,  youngest  natural  son 
of  King  Robert  II,  by  Marion  de  Cardney,  daughter 
of  John  de  Cardney  of  that  ilk,  and  sister  of  Robert 
Cardney,  Bishop  of  Dunkeld.  Sir  John  Stewart  was 
knighted  at  the  coronation  of  King  James  I  at  Scone, 
in  1424.  His  descendant,  John  Steuart,  seventh  laird 
of  Dalguise  was  out  in  the  rising  of  1715. 

The  Stuarts  of  Inchbreck  and  Laithers,  Aberdeen- 
shire, are  descended  from  Andrew  Stewart  of  Laur- 
encekirk in  the  Mearns,  great-grandson  of  Murdoch, 
Duke  of  Albany,  the  grandson  of  Robert  II.  David 
Stewart  the  son  of  Andrew,  was  the   first  of  Inch- 

History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family      51 

breck,  in  1547.  He  had  a  son,  John,  whose  greaV 
grandson,  William  Stuart  of  Inchbreck,  married  Mar- 
garet the  heiress  both  of  David  Guthrie  of  Kair  and 
of  Henry  Guthrie  of  Halkerton.  They  had  two  sons, 
John  Stuart,  who  succeeded  to  Inchbreck,  and  James 
Stuart  who  joined  Prince  Charles  Edward  in  1745, 
and  after  the  Battle  of  CuUoden  took  refuge  in  France, 
where  he  entered  the   French  service. 

Archibald  Stuart,  fourth  son  of  the  third  Stuart 
Earl  of  Moray  was  the  founder  of  the  family  of  Stuart 
of  Dunearn,  Fife. 

The  family  of  Stirling-Stuart  of  Castlemilk  are  de- 
scended from  the  ancient  branch  of  Castlemilk.  Sir 
John  Stuart,  the  fifth  Baronet  of  Castlemilk,  died 
without  male  issue.  His  daughter,  Jean  Stuart  mar- 
ried in  1 781,  William  Stirling  of  Keir,  from  whom  the 
family  of  Stirling-Stuart  descended. 

The  noble  house  of  Lennox  descended  from  Sir 
John  Stewart  of  Darnley,  who  was  created  Lord 
Darnley  by  James  H,  in  1445,  and  obtained  the  Earl- 
dom of  Lennox  from  James  HI,  about  1481. 

The  Galloway  branch  is  descended  from  Sir  John 
Stewart,  younger  son  of  Alexander,  fourth  Lord  High 
Steward  of  Scotland,  whose  elder  son,  James,  was  an- 
cestor of  the  Royal  House  The  direct  ancestor  of  the 
branch  was  Sir  William  Stewart,  who  was  made  a 
Knight  Banneret  about  1385.  His  great-grandson,  Sir 
Alexander  Stewart,  was  designated  of  Garlics,  which 
continued  to  be  the  chief  title  of  the  family,  until  a 
later  Sir  Alexander  Stewart  was,  in  1623,  created 
Earl  of  Galloway. 

Sliochd  Aileen  'ic  Rob,  the  sep>t  of  the  Clan  Stew- 
art commonly  called  the  MacRobs,  descended  from  a 
natural  son  of  Robert  Stewart,  son  of  Dugald,  first 

52     History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family 

of  Appin,  This  son's  name  was  Alan,  and  the  lands 
occupied  by  the  MacRobs  were  situated  at  Glenduror, 
Lettermore  and  Acharn,  in  Duror.  Towards  the  end 
of  the  eighteenth  century  many  of  the  MacRobs  emi- 
grated to  America. 


LTHOUGH  it  is  not  intended  to  relate  in 
detail  that  which  is  national  history,  yet 
a  brief  resume  of  the  dynasty  of  the  Stew- 
art or  Stuart  Kings  may  rightly  hold  a 
place  in  this  story  of  the  family.  And  any  such  story 
would  indeed  be  incomplete  without  some  account  of 
two  of  the  most  romantic,  yet  unfortunate,  figures  of 
the  august  family,  so  generally  and  justly  alluded  to 
as  the  unfortunate  Royal  House  of  Stuart,  namely, 
Mary,  Queen  of  Scots  and  Prince  Charles  Edward, 
Bonnie  Prince  Charlie. 

Of  the  sovereigns  of  the  Dynasty  who  occupied  the 
throne,  few  died  a  natural  death,  and  fewer  still  es- 
caped some  form  of  disaster. 

Robert  H,  the  first  Stewart  King  of  Scotland, 
reigned  from  1371  until  1390  and  died  a  natural  death. 

Robert  HI,  his  son,  was  originally  named  John,  but 
as  the  Scottish  people  were  not  partial  to  this  name 
for  their  King,  he  changed  his  name  to  Robert.  He 
died,  in  1406,  of  a  broken  heart,  caused  by  the  murder 
of  his  elder  son,  the  Duke  of  Rothesay,  and  the  cap- 
ture by  the  English  and  imprisonment  of  his  younger 
son  afterwards  James  I. 

James  I  passed  manv  years  of  his  life  in  captivity, 
and,  as  told  in  the  previous  memoir  of,  the  Duke  of 
Albany,  was  murdered  in  1437. 

James  H  was  only  six  years  old  when  his  father 
was  murdered.  The  wars  with  the  Douglasses  were 
a  feature  of  his  reign,  and  he  was  killed  by  the  burst- 
ing of  a  cannon  in  1460. 

54      History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Fatnily 

James  III,  a  child  of  eight  years  old,  succeeded  his 
father.  He  caused  the  murder  of  his  brother,  the  Earl 
of  Mar,  and  was  himself  murdered  in  1488. 

James  IV  married  Margaret  Tudor,  daughter  of 
Henry  VIII  of  England.  With  this  reign  the  modern 
history  of  Scotland  begins.  The  Universities  of  Aber- 
deen and  St.  Andrews  were  founded.  He  invaded 
England  and  was  killed  at  the  Battle  of  Flodden  in 


James  V  ascended  the  throne  in  succession  to  his 
father  when  a  child  of  not  two  years  old.  The  Queen 
Dowager  Margaret  assumed  the  Regency.  Henry 
VIII  invaded  Scotland.  The  reformation  began  in 
Scotland,  the  King  and  clergy,  op'posing,  and  the 
nobles  favoring  the  movement.  James,  a  king  of  many 
good  qualities  and  talent,  died  of  a  broken  heart 
caused  by  the  conduct  of  his  nobles,  and  rout  of  his 
army,  at  Sol  way  Moss,  1542. 

Mary,  Queen  of  Scots,  his  daughter  succeeded.  Her 
Ayell  known  fate  is  mentioned  later  in  this  chapter, 
as  also  the  murder  of  her  husband,  Darnley. 

James  VI  of  Scotland  and  I  of  England,  son  of 
Mary  and  Darnley,  and  by  whom  came  the  union 
of  the  crowns  of  Scotland  and  England,  died  a  natural 
death  in  1625. 

Charles  I,  his  son,  fought  for  his  crown,  from  which 
he  was  excluded  after  the  defeat  at  Naseby  in  1645, 
and  was  beheaded  in  1649. 

Charles  II,  after  being  in  exile,  succeeded  in  1660 
t)n  the  restoration  of  the  monarchy,  and  died  of  a 
Stroke  in  1685. 

Tames  II  of  England  and  VII  of  Scotland  suc- 
ceeded his  brother,  but  so  alienated  the  affections  of 
the  nation  that  an  invitation  was  sent  to  William, 
Prince  of  Orange,  to  come  "to  the  rescue  of  the  laws 

History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family      55 

and  religion  of  England";  and  William  and  Mary, 
Princess  of  Orange,  were  proclaimed  joint  sovereigns 
of  England  in  February,  1689,  and  of  Scotland  in 
April  of  the  same  year.  Mary  was  the  elder  daughter 
of  James  II,  and  William  was  the  son  of  Mary,  eld- 
est daughter  of  Charles  I.  They  left  no  issue  and 
were  succeeded,  in  1702,  by  Anne  second  daughter  of 
James  11.  Anne  died  without  issue  in  1714.  On  her 
death  the  succession  passed  to  the  house  of  Hanover, 
descended  from  the  Princess  Elizabeth,  daughter  of 
James  I  and  wife  of  Frederick  V,  Count  Palatine  of 
the  Rhine.  George  I,  elder  son  of  Sophia,  the  }'Oung- 
est  child  of  the  Princess  Elizabeth  and  Ernest,  Elector 
of  Hanover,  became  King  of  Great  Britain  and  Ire- 
land, from  whom  the  present  Royal  Family  take  de- 

The  female  issue  of  James  II  ended  with  Anne. 
His  son  James,  called  by  his  supporters  James  III  of 
England  and  VIII  of  Scotland,  had  two  sons,  Prince 
Charles  Edward,  referred  to  later,  who  died  in  1780 
without  legitimate  issue,  and  Henry  Stuart,  titular 
Duke  of  York,  commonly  called  Cardinal  York,  on 
whose  death  in  1807  the  male  line  of  James  II  came 
to  and  end. 

Widely  as  some  of  the  branches  of  the  Stewart  or 
Stuart  family  have  spread,  and  numerous  as  are  the 
families  of  the  name,  there  is  not  a  representative  in 
the  lineal  male  line  of  any  of  the  crowned  heads  of 
the  race.  The  Crown,  which  came  into  the  family 
through  a  female,  Marjory  the  daughter  of  the  Bruce, 
has  been  transmitted  through  a  female,  the  Princess 

The  house  of  Bavaria  is  descended  from  the  house 
of  Stuart  through  Henrietta,  daughter  of  Charles  I; 
and  the  house  of  Orleans  also  takes  descent  from  the 

56      History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family 

Stuarts  through  Charlotte,  grand-daughter  and  heir- 
ess of  the  Princess  Elizabeth,  daughter  of  James  I. 
In  addition  to  these  two  families,  there  are  also  the 
descendants  of  Edward,  a  brother  of  the  Electress 

The  male  representation,  or  Chiefship,  of  the  family 
being  extinct  in  the  Royal  lines,  is  claimed  by  the 
Earls  of  Galloway,  and  has  also  been  claimed  by  the 
Stuart  of  Castlemilk  branch,  as  descended  from  a 
junior  branch  of  Darnley  and  Lennox. 

Mary  Stuart,  Queen  of  Scots,  daughter  of  James 
V  and  Mary  of  Guise,  was  born  in  the  palace  of  Lin- 
lithgow on  the  7th  December,  1542.  Her  father  was 
on  his  death  bed  at  Falkland,  when  her  birth  was 
announced  to  him,  and  regarded  the  announcement 
as  a  warning  of  his  death.  Anxiously  he  asked  if  it 
was  a  son.  When  told  it  was  a  daughter,  he  moaned, 
"It  came  with  ane  lass,  it  will  pass  with  ane  lass," 
referring  to  the  crown  of  Scotland ;  but  his  prophecy 
was  not  fulfilled.  Seven  days  later  the  King  died. 
Much  of  her  childhood  was  spent  in  Inchmahome, 
a  small  island  in  the  lake  of  Menteith,  and  to  divert 
the  young  Princess  her  solitary  residence  was  shared 
by  four  young  ladies  of  rank,  the  celebrated  Four 
Marys.  All  four  Marys  accomp'anied  the  Queen  to 
France  and  returned  with  her  to  Scotland.  The  old 
ballad  named  after  her  tells  of  the  tragic  fate  of  Mary 
Hamilton,  in  consequence  of  the  Queen's  discovery 
that  she  and  Darnle}^  were  lovers. 

The  King  thovight  mair  o'  Marie  Hamilton 
Than  the  Queen  and  a'  her  lands." 

She  was  condemned  to  die  and   "when   she  came  to 
the  gallows  foot"  the  poem  has  her  say : 

History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family      57 

"Yestreen  the  Queen  had  four  Maries, 
The  night  she'll  hae  but  three; 
There  was  Marie  Seaton,  and  Marie  Beaton, 
And  Marie  Carmichael.  and  me." 

In  her  sixth  year  Mary,  Queen  of  Scots,  was  sent 
to  the  Court  of  France,  where  her  beauty  and  intellec- 
tual superiority  gained  all  hearts.  In  her  sixteenth 
year,  she  was,  in  1558,  married  to  Francis,  the  young 
Dauphin  of  France,  but  little  older.  Mary  was  already 
Queen  of  Scotland  and  heir  presumptive  of  England, 
and  when  the  Dauphin  succeeded  to  the  throne  in 
1559,  became  Queen  Consort  of  France,  a  concentra- 
tion of  dignities  which  perhaps  never  before  occurred. 
In  1560,  her  young  husband  died,  while  yet  only  in 
his  seventeenth  year.  Mary  was  now  invited  to  re- 
turn to  Scotland,  and  arrived  at  Leith  in  August,  1561. 
It  was  an  unfortunate  time  for  the  young  Queen  to 
return.  Zeal  for  religious  reformation  was  at  its 
highest,  and  on  the  very  first  Sunday  after  her  arrival, 
her  attendants  were  mobbed  in  the  Chapel  of  Holy- 
rood,  when  about  to  celebrate  mass ;  and  on  the  follow- 
ing Sunday,  Knox  denounced  the  Queen  from  the 
pulpit.  Her  public  entry  into  Edinburgh,  her  inter- 
view with  Knox,  her  progress  through  her  Kingdom, 
and  the  Scottish  wars  of  religion,  are  matters  of 
national  history.  The  long  series  of  miseries  and  mis- 
fortunes which  render  her  story  so  remarkable  began 
with  her  unfortunate  marriage  to  Henry  Stewart, 
Lord  Darnley,  which  took  place  on  the  29th  July,  1565. 
Among  the  first  evil  results  of  this  marriage  was  the 
open  hostility  of  her  half  brother,  the  Earl  of  Moray, 
who  now  stood  forward  as  an  open  and  declared 
enemy,  and  took  the  field ;  but  being  unable  to  cope 
with  the  Queen,  he  fled  to  the  English  Court.  The 
mists  soon  cleared  from  Mary's  eyes  with  regard  to 

58     History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family 

her  husband,  Darnley,  whom  she  saw  as  arrogant  and 
brainless,  and  who  declared  that  Mary  had  played 
him  false  with  her  Italian  secretary  Rizzio.  The 
protestant  Nobles  did  not  share  his  suspicions,  but 
feared  the  influence  of  Rizzio,  and  on  the  evening  of 
the  9th  March,  1566,  occurred  the  oft  told  murder 
of  the  secretary.  On  the  19th  June,  1566,  in  the 
Castle  of  Edinburgh,  was  born  her  son,  afterwards 
James  VI  of  Scotland  and  I  of  England.  The  news 
of  the  birth  of  a  son  was  received  with  the  utmost 
joy  throughout  the  kingdom,  but  from  this  period 
the  page  of  Mary's  story  rapidly  darkens.  At  the 
suggestion  of  the  FJarl  of  Bothwell,  now  one  of  the 
most  active  of  Mary's  officers  of  state,  the  proposal 
was  made  that  Mary  should  divorce  Darnley,  but 
she  refused  to  accede  to  the  proposal.  Bothwell,  how- 
ever, resolved  that  Darnley  should  die,  and  attended 
by  a  band  of  accomplices,  he  proceeded,  at  midnight, 
on  Sunday  9th  February,  1567,  to  the  Kirk  of  Field 
House,  where  Darnley  had  taken  up  a  temporary  resi- 
dence. A  large  quantity  of  gunpowder  was  exploded 
in  the  chamber  beneath  that  in  which  Darnley  slept, 
and  the  house,  with  all  its  inmates,  including  Darnley, 
was  totally  destroyed.  Bothwell  was  accused  by  the 
Earl  of  Lennox,  Darnley's  father,  was  tried,  but  ac- 
quitted. A  little  more  than  two  months  after  the 
assassination  of  Darnley,  Bothwell  procured  the  sig- 
nature of  a  number  of  the  nobility  to  a  document  set- 
ting forth,  first,  his  innocence  of  the  crime ;  secondly, 
the  necessity  of  the  Queen  again  marrying;  and, 
thirdly  recommending  James,  Earl  of  Bothwell,  as  a 
fit  person  to  become  her  husband.  He  seized  the 
Queen's  person,  and  detained  her  for  ten  days  at 
Dunbar,  one  of  his  castles,  until  he  obtained  her  con- 
sent to  espouse  him.     A  few  weeks  afterwards  they 

History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family      59 

were  married,  but  Bothwell's  numerous  enemies  took 
up  arms  to  displace  him.  A  compromise  was  come 
to  whereby  Mary  delivered  herself  up-  to  the  opposite 
party,  after  she  had  prevailed  upon  Bothwell  to  quit 
the  field.  Mary  was  confined  in  the  Castle  of  Loch- 
leven,  and,  on  24th  July,  1567,  was  compelled  to  abdi- 
cate, the  Earl  of  Moray  being  elected  to  the  Regency. 
In  March,  1568,  Mary  escaped  from  Lochleven  and 
placed  herself  at  the  head  of  a  large  army,  surrounded 
by  the  greater  part  of  her  nobilit}^  but  was  defeated 
by  the  Earl  of  Moray  at  the  Battle  of  Langside,  and 
fled  by  sea  to  England.  She  landed  at  Cockermouth, 
in  Cumberland,  and  proceeded  to  Carlisle.  The  un- 
fortunate Queen  was  now  moved  from  castle  to  castle, 
and  finally,  in  September,  1586,  to  Fotheringay,  with 
a  view  to  being  brought  to  trial  on  a  charge  of  having 
aided  a  conspiracy  to  assassinate  Queen  Elizabeth. 
Mary  denied  that  she  had  ever  in  word,  or  even  in 
thought,  been  party  to  any  such  conspirac}^  and  the 
evidence  which  was  brought  to  convict  the  Queen  of 
Scotland  was  such  as  would  not  now  affect  the  life 
of  the  meanest  criminal.  There  was  a  further  charge 
of  abetting  a  conspiracy  set  on  foot  by  the  Duke  of 
Norfolk,  who  had  not  only  aimed  at  restoring  her 
to  liberty,  but  had  looked  forwarded  to  obtaining  her 
hand.  Norfolk's  designs  were  discovered,  and  he 
perished  on  the  scaffold.  In  pursuance  of  what  was 
certainly  Elizabeth's  wish,  Mary  was  found  guiltv.  On 
the  7th  February,  1587,  the  Earls  who  were  appointed 
to  superintend  her  execution  arrived  at  Fotheringay, 
and  on  the  following  morning  at  eight  o'clock,  Mary, 
Queen  of  Scots,  was  beheaded.  Still  mindful  of  her 
birth,  and  of  what  she  once  had  been,  the  unfortunate 
Queen  appeared  on  the  scaffold  arrayed  in  her  best 
and   most   splendid    attire,   and    her   whole   conduct 

60      History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family 

throughout  the  trying  scene  was  marked  with  the  noble 
bearing  and  unshaken  fortitude  of  a  heroine.  Mary 
never  forgot  for  a  moment  that  she  was  Queen  of* 
Scotland,  and  died  with  a  magnanimity  worthy  of  the 
title.  These  lines,  so  bitterly  true,  are  said  to  have 
been  written  by  the  Queen,  with  a  diamond,  on  a 
window  in  Fotheringay  Castle : 

"And  from  the  top  of  all  my  trust 
Mishap  has  thrown  me  in  the  dust." 

Her  remains  were  embalmed  and  buried  in  the  Cathe- 
dral of  Peterborough,  but,  twenty-five  years  after- 
wards were  removed  by  her  son,  James  VI  and  I,  to 
Westminster  Abbey. 

"Let  with  my  deathe  my  faults  be  cleane  remitt. 
And    with    my    bones    my    name    exempt    from 

My  bodye  hathe  sustainde  a  guerdon  fitt. 
Whose   freed   soule   woulde   not   be   blamed   so 


The  Young  Chevalier,  the  gallant  "Bonnie  Prince 
Charlie,"  is  the  figure  in  the  past  which  still  most 
vividly  appeals  to  the  imagination  of  Scotland.  He 
was  born  at  Rome  on  the  31st  December,  1720,  grand- 
son of  James  H  of  England  and  VII  of  Scotland, 
and  eldest  son  of  the  Chevalier  St.  George,  who  claimed 
the  title  of  James  III  of  England  and  VIII  of  Scot- 
land, and  had  himself  headed  an  unsuccessful  rising 
in  1 71 5.  The  full  name  of  the  Prince  was  Charles 
Edward  Louis  Phillipe  Casimir  Stuart,  and  as  his 
father  was  known  as  the  Old  Pretender,  he  is  often 
referred  to  as  the  Young  Pretender.  Naturally  the 
term  is  objected  to  by  the  supporters  of  the  Stuart 
cause,  and  the  name  Prince  Charlie,  without  the  use 
of  the  word  Pretender,  will  answer  our  purptose. 

History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family      61 

"God  bless  the  King;  God  bless  the  Faith's  defender; 
God  bless — no  harm  in  blessing — The  Pretender ; 
Who  that  Pretender  is,  and  who  that  King — 
God  bless  us  all — is  quite  another  thing." 

Many  of  the  old  families  in  Scotland  still  retained 
their  attachment  to  the  race  of  Stuart,  their  ancient 
monarchs,  and  several  Chiefs  of  the  Clans  negotiated 
measures  for  a  rising  in  the  Highlands.  Indeed,  the 
persevering  efforts  which  the  Highlanders  made  for 
the  restoration  of  the  Stuarts,  is  one  of  the  most 
remarkable  things  in  history.  The  Clans  under  Mont- 
rose had  recovered  Scotland  for  King  Charles  I ;  they 
had  followed  "the  bonnets  of  Bonny  Dundee,"  in 
1689;  they  had  been  out  with  the  Chevalier  St.  George 
in  1715;  had  fought  with  the  Earl  of  Seaforth  in  1719; 
and  once  again  the  Clans  gathered  to  follow  the 
White  Cockade,  and  fight  for  the  "King  o'  the  High- 
land hearts,  Bonnie  Prince  Charlie." 

"Follow  thee!  Follow  thee!  Wha  wadna  follow  thee? 
Lang  hast  thou  loved  and  trusted  us  fairly! 
Charlie,  Charlie,  wha  wadna  follow  thee, 

King    o'     the    Highland     hearts,    bonnie     Prince 

On  the  8th  of  July,  1745,  there  sailed  from  France  a 
man  of  war  of  sixty  guns  named  the  Elizabeth,  and 
a  frigate  named  the  Doutelle,  on  board  of  the  latter 
being  Prince  Charlie  with  a  few  attendants.  The  day 
after  they  left  port,  the  Lion,  an  English  man  of  war, 
engaged  the  Elizabeth,  and  the  Doutelle  made  for  the 
north  of  Scotland,  where  the  Prince  landed  at  Eriska, 
in  the  Hebrides.  MacDonald  of  Boisdale,  the  first 
man  of  consequence  he  met,  advised  him  to  return 
home.  "I  am  come  home,  sir,"  was  the  reply.  The 
Prince  unfurled  his  standard  at  Glen  Finnan  on  the 
19th  of  August,  1745.    It  was  displayed  by  the  Marquis 

62      History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family 

of  Tullibardine,  who  had  been  exiled  for  participation 
in  the  rising  of  1715  and  now  returned  to  Scotland  in 
the  Doutelle.  The  standard  which  had  been  raised 
was  the  Brattach  bhan,  or  White  Banner.  This  flag, 
of  large  size,  was,  according  to  one  account,  composed 
of  red,  blue  and  white  silk,  or  according  to  another, 
of  a  red  color  with  the  figure  of  a  white  standard  in  the 
middle,  and  the  motto  "Tandem  bona  causa  trium- 
p'hans."  It  was  borne  in  the  center  of  the  column  by 
the  Clans,  each  having  the  honor  of  carrying  it  on 
alternate  da;  s.  The  Clans  which  had  joined  Prince 
Charlie  were,  The  Stewarts  of  Clan  Appin,  under 
Ardsheal,  numbering  250;  the  MacDonalds  of  Kep- 
poch,  who  had  alread_.'  been  in  action ;  the  MacDonalds 
of  Clan  Ranald,  upwards  of  300  men;  the  MacDonalds 
of  Glenco  numbering  150;  Glengarry  with  300  Mc- 
Donnells; and  the  Camerons,  under  Lochiel,  number- 
ing nearly  800.  The  Prince's  adoption  of  their  cos- 
tumes delighted  the  Plighlanders,  and  dressed  as  them- 
selves he  marched  on  foot  at  the  head  of  his  men, 
or  occasionally  with  the  different  Clans.  The  little 
band  continued  to  receive  additional  followers,  includ- 
ing the  Grants  of  Glenmoriston,  Viscount  Strathallan 
and  his  son,  Oliphant  of  Cask  and  his  son,  and  John 
Roy  Stewart,  a  most  useful  officer.  The  Government 
troops  under  Sir  John  Cope,  sent  to  oppose  him,  de- 
clining battle.  Prince  Charles  Edward  occupied  Perth 
on  the  3rd  of  September,  where  he  was  joined  by  the 
Duke  of  Perth  with  200  men ;  Lord  George  Murray, 
and  many  gentlemen  of  note.  Sir  John  Cope  and  the 
Government  troops  continued  to  retreat  before  the 
Highlander"^,  and  the  Prince's  army  having  received 
the  welcome  addition  of  the  Robertsons,  MacGregors, 
and  more  of  the  Stewarts  of  Athole,  took  Edinburgh 
by  surprise  on  the  i6th  September.    The  Castle,  how- 

History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family      63 

ever,  remained  in  Government  hands.  Many  another 
Hig-hland  Chief  had  now  "ta'en  the  field  wi'  his  White 
Cockade."  We  find  Lord  Nairn  with  one  thousand 
men  from  Athole ;  the  Chief  of  MacLachlan  and  his 
followers;  Lord  Elcho,  eldest  son  of  the  Duke  of 
Wemyss ;  the  Earl  of  Kelly ;  Lord  Balmerino ;  Jaraes 
Hepburn  of  Keith ;  Lockhart  of  Carnwarth ;  the 
}  ounger  Graham  of  Airth  ;  the  younger  RoUo  of  Pow- 
burn  ;  Hamilton  of  Bangour ;  and  Sir  David  Murray. 
The  Prince  determined  to  give  battle  to  Sir  John 
Cop*e,  who  had  taken  up  a  position  at  Prestonpans, 
and  by  a  night  attack  surprised  the  Hanoverian  forces, 
totally  routing  them.  It  is  related  that  the  Stewarts, 
with  the  Camerons,  rushed  straight  to  the  muzzles 
of  then  enem ;'s  cannon,  "with  a  swiftness  not  to  be 
described,"  taking  them  by  storm;  and  the  High- 
landers' broadsword  attack  compelled  "Johnnie  Cope" 
to  beat  a  precip'itate  retreat. 

"  'T'  ^ni'h'  quo'  Johnnie,  *I  got  a  fleg 
Wi'  their  claymores  and  philabegs; 
If  I  face  them  again,  deil  break  my  legs! 
So  I  wish  you  a  gude  morning.'  " 

The  Highland  army,  reinforced  by  the  MacKinnons, 
MacPhersons,  Lord  Pitsligo  with  some  cavalry,  and 
1800  men  raised  by  the  Marquis  of  TuUibardine, 
marched  for  England.  They  crossed  the  Border,  one 
column  proceeded  to  Brampton,  and  the  other  to  near 
Carlisle.  After  the  capitulation  of  Carlisle,  the  Prince 
made  a  triumphal  entr  -  into  the  city,  on  the  17th 
of  November,  and  then  p^roceeded  south,  finally  arriv- 
ing at  Derb  ■,  only  one  hundred  and  twenty-six  miles 
from  London.  During  the  whole  of  this  long  and 
arduous  march,  the  Prince,  wearing  the  Highland 
dress,  had  shared  the  fatigues  and  hardships  of  his 

64      History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family 

men.  The  army  arrived  at  Derby  on  the  4th  of  De- 
cember, and  on  the  morning  of  the  6th,  to  the  exceed- 
ing mortification  of  the  clansmen,  they  left  Derby  and 
arrived  back  in  Scotland  on  the  i8th,  during  which 
return  march  the  Government  troops  were  defeated  at 
Clifton  by  the  Stewarts  of  Clan  Appin  and  the  Mac- 
Phersons,  who  charged  through  hedge  and  ditch  with 
the  claymore,  "over  the  necks  of  the  foes  of  Prince 
Charlie."  The  retreat*  from  Derby  was  much  against 
the  wish  of  the  Prince  and  a  grievous  disappointment 
to  him.  The  opinion  has  since  been  expressed,  that 
had  he  p'ressed  on  to  London,  the  Stuarts  would  cer- 
tainly have  regained  the  throne.  The  retreating  army 
proceeded  to  Glasgow,  and  thence  to  Stirling,  where 
they  were  joined  by  other  Clans,  which,  during  the 
march  into  England,  had  already  been  out  for  the 
Stuart  cause  in  Scotland.  They  included  the  Erasers, 
the  Macintoshes  and  the  Farquharsons.  The  Govern- 
ment troops  were  again  defeated  at  Falkirk,  after 
which  battle,  the  Prince  and  his  army  commenced 
their  march  to  Inverness,  where  they  arrived  in  Janu- 
ary, 1746.  The  Duke  of  Cumberland  was  advancing 
against  them  from  the  south,  and  on  the  i6th  of  April 
arrived  at  the  field  of  Culloden  where  the  Prince's 
forces  were  stationed ;  and  soon  after  the  two  armies 
met  in  that  battle  which  for  ever  put  an  end  to  the 
hopes  of  the  Stuart  cause.  Some  of  the  Clans  had 
already  returned  to  their  own  country  when  this  dis- 
astrous combat  took  place,  and  those  engaged  were 
suffering  from  fatigue  and  short  rations.  The  follow- 
ing Clans  took  part  in  the  battle :  The  Stewarts  of 
Clan  Appin ;  The  Stewarts  of  Athole ;  Roy  Stewart 
and  his  men  ;  The  Camerons ;  The  Erasers  ;  The  Clan 
MacLean ;  The  Macintoshes;  The  MacLachlans;  Far- 
quharsons: The   MacDonalds   of  Clan   Ranald;  The 

History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family      65 

Keppoch  MacDonalds;  and  The  McDonnells  of  Glen- 
garry. Stewart  of  Ardsheal  led  the  Clan  Appin,  and 
a  great  number  of  his  officers  and  men  were  killed 
in  their  famous  charge  on  the  cannon.  When  the 
Clan  Stewart  standard  bearer  was  killed,  another  of 
the  Clan  tore  the  banner  from  the  staff,  and  wrap- 
ping it  round  his  body  carried  it  through  the  battle. 
The  force  of  the  Stewarts  of  Appiin  amounted  to 
three  hundred  men,  but  together  with  the  Stewarts 
of  Athole,  Strathearn  and  Monteith,  they  amounted  to 
nearly  four  thousand.  Colonel  Roy  Stewart,  one  of 
the  most  efficient  and  active  of  Prince  Charlie's  offi- 
cers, commanded  a  force  of  four  hundred  men. 

For  the  first  time  the  Highlanders  were  defeated, 
and  the  terrible  scourging  they  afterwards  received 
from  the  Duke  of  Cumberland's  army  has  left  an 
indelible  stain  on  his  memory.  The  Prince,  his  me- 
teoric career  at  an  end,  found  himself  a  wanderer. 

"He  row'd  him  in  a  Highland  p'laid. 
Which  covered  him  but  sparely. 
And  slept  beneath  a  bush  o'  broom 
Oh!  wae's  me  for  Prince  Charlie." 

His  escapes,  hardships  and  adventures,  and  the  assist- 
ance of  the  brave  Flora  MacDonald,  have  ever  been 
a  favorite  subject  for  artist  and  writer.  The  Govern- 
ment offered  a  reward  of  ^30,000  for  his  capture, 
but  great  as  were  their  sufferings,  and  well  known 
as  were  so  many  of  Charles'  retreats,  it  was  no  temp- 
tation for  the  poorest  Highlander  to  betray  his  Prince 
For  almost  five  months  he  was  a  fugitive  among  the 
hills  in  the  Highlands,  closely  scented  by  the  officers 
of  the  Government,  After  various  concealments,  he 
escaped  to  the  Isle  of  Skye  in  the  character  and  dis- 
guise of  a  servant  girl,  and,  after  perilous  adventures, 

66     History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family 

got  on  board  a  French  ship',  in  September,  1746,  and 
reached  France.    He  died  at  Rome,  in  1780. 

''Oh !  my  Prince,  it  were  well 
Hadst  thou  to  the  g-ods  been  dear, 
To  have  fallen  where  brave  Keppoch  fell, 
With  the  war  pipes  loud  in  thine  ear." 


HE  first  permanent  English  settlement  in 
the  Colonies  of  America  was  founded  dur- 
ing the  reign  of  James  VI  of  Scotland 
and  I  of  England.  Earlier  efforts  at  col- 
onization had  been  made,  but  without  lasting  results. 
In  the  year  1577  a  patent  of  colonization  for  Virginia 
was  granted  to  Sir  Humphrey  Gilbert,  and  in  1585 
one  hundred  and  eight  settlers  arrived  in  the  Colonies 
under  Sir  Richard  Grenville,  but  these  attempts  at 
colonization  were  merel}'^  sporadic,  and  without  dur- 
able effect  on  the  colonial  development  of  the  new 
land.  Not  until  1607,  when  a  small  body  of  colonists 
founded  Jamestown,  did  any  permanent  English  set- 
tlement establish  itself  in  the  American  Colonies. 
This  settlement  at  Jamestown,  with  other  settlements 
along  the  James  River,  later  became  the  Province  of 
Virginia,  and  rightly  claims  precedence  as  the  pioneer 
settlement  of  this  country.  In  the  same  year,  an  at- 
tempt at  colonization  was  made  in  what  is  now  Maine, 
but  the  expedition  was  unsuccessful,  and  returned  to 
England.  The  year  1620  saw  the  arrival  of  the  historic 
"Mayflower,"  followed  by  the  founding  of  the  Ply- 
mouth Colony.  Other  small  communities  were  form- 
ing along  the  Atlantic  seaboard,  the  most  important 
in  New  England.  Maryland  was  founded  in  1632,  being 
followed  by  other  settlements,  until,  within  sixty  years 
after  the  first  settlement  on  the  James  River,  seven 
Colonies  were  firmly  established  on  the  coast  of  North 

The  current  of  migration  from  Scotland  was  slow 


68     History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family 

in  tTie  early  years  of  the  colonization  of  America,  for, 
during  the  reigns  of  the  early  Stuart  kings  in  England, 
conditions  in  Scotland  were  not  yet  such  as  to  cause 
the  hardy  Scots  to  leave  the  hills  and  glens  to  which 
they  were  attached  by  so  many  romantic  and  domestic 
tres.  During  the  period  of  the  Commonwealth  the 
Colonies  received  a  large  number  of  Scottish  emi- 
grants, the  early  Scottish  influence  being  especially 
potent  with  the  founders  of  the  New  England  colonies. 
At  the  end  of  the  seventeenth  century  economic  con- 
ditions, both  fn  Scotland  and  the  North  of  Ire- 
land, where  many  hardy  and  intelligent  Scots  had 
located,  caused  a  great  and  valuable  influx  to  the  Col- 
onies of  Highlanders  and  Lowlanders  from  Scotland 
direct,  and  of  Scottish  Ulstermen  from  the  North  of 
Ireland.  As  in  the  case  of  other  Scottish  families, 
another  motive,  religion,  led  forth  many  of  the  clan 
who  wished  fo  live  in  beliefs,  and  follow  forms  of 
religion,  which  were  not  tolerated  at  home ;  a  motive 
as  old  as  the  time  of  Moses,  who  cited  to  Pharaoh 
the  reason  for  the  Exodus  from  Egypt,  "We  must 
go  three  days  journey  into  the  wilderness  to  offer  a 
sacrifice  unto  the  Lord  our  God."  Again,  among  the 
clansmen  were  those  who,  possessed  of  an  adventur- 
ous spirit,  convinced  of  the  truth  that,  "They  wha  hae 
a  gude  Scottish  tongue  in  their  head  are  fit  to  gang 
ower  the  world,"  said  farewell  to  their  kin  and  their 
native  hills,  seeking  fame  and  fortune  in  the  new 
lana  of  promise.  Boswell  relates  how  the  sailing  of 
an  emigrant  ship  in  those  days  was  an  occasion  of 
general  sorrowing,  and  that  those  left  behind  cast 
themselves  weeping  on  the  shore  for  it  was  not  thought 
that  those  departing  would  ever  return  "home"  again. 
Neil  Muiiro  expresses  this  in  his  poem: 

History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family     69 

"My  plaid  is  on  my  shoulder  and  the  boat  is  on 
the  shore, 
And  it's  all  bye  wi'  auld  days  and  you ; 
Here's  a  health  and  here's  a  heartbreak,  for  Its 
home,  my  dear,  no  more, 
To  the  green  glens,  the  fine  glens  we  knew." 
Also,  after  the  rising  of  1745,  in  favor  of  Prince  Charles 
Edward,  a  large  number  of  emigrants  of  Highland 
stock  left  for  America,  and  formed  a  nucleus  of  more 
extensive  immigration  subsequently. 

William  Stewart  emigrated  from  Scotland  to  Maine, 
and  settled  at  Ipswich  in  that  Colony  in  1684.  In 
1691,  the  records  tell,  a  lad  was  "put  to  Mr.  Stewart, 
Shop  Keeper  of  Ipswich  for  seven  years  to  serve  him 
as  apprentice,"  and  in  1693  he  presented  the  North 
Church  with  a  silver  cup,  inscribed^  "Mr.  William 
Stewart's  Gift  to  ye  Church  of  Ipswich,  June,  1693." 
John  Dunton,  the  bookseller  from  England,  paid  a 
business  visit  to  William  Stewart,  and  in  his  letters 
gives  the  following  glowing  description  of  Mrs.  Stew- 
art: "Her  stature  is  of  full  middle  size,  fit  for  a  woman. 
He  face  is  still  the  magazine  of  beauty,  whence  she 
may  fetch  artillery  enough  to  wound  a  thousand 
lovers,  and  when  she  was  about  eighteen,  perhaps 
there  never  was  a  face  more  sweet  and  charming,  nor 
could  it  well  be  otherwise,  since  now  at  thirty-three, 
all  you  call  sweet  and  ravishing  is  in  her  face,  which 
it  is  a  great  pleasure  to  behold  as  a  perpetual  sun- 
shine without  any  clouds  at  all."  William  Stewart 
died  at  IpsAvich  in  1693. 

The  General  Assembly  of  the  Province  of  Maryland 
held  at  St.  Mary's  in  1642  assessed  Charles  Stuart 
£32  rates,  and  his  name  appears  in  the  list  of  inhaBi- 
tants  of  Kent,  in  the  same  year.  The  General  Assem- 
bly, in  1681,  ordered  one  hundred  and  fifty  pounds 
of  tobacco  paid  to  John  Stuart. 

70     History  oj  ike  Stewart  or  Stimrt  Family 

A  somewhat  troublesome  member  of  the  family  was 
located  at  New  Haven  as  early  as  1639.  At  a  Court 
of  New  Haven  Colony  holden  4th  of  December  in 
that  year,  James  Stewart  and  another  were  "injoined 
to  make  a  double  restitutio  to  John  Cokerill  for  five 
pounds  and  seventeene  shillings,  which  they  stole  out 
of  his  chist  on  the  Lord's  Day  in  the  meeting  time." 
James  was  again  in  trouble  in  1643,  when  he  was 
fined  one  shilling  for  being  "late  coming  to  trayne," 
and,  in  1646,  was  "complayned  of  for  severall  dis- 
orderly expressions  and  comtempt  of  the  magestracye 
in  this  place." 

Duncan  Stewart  was  an  early  settler  in  the  Colony 
of  Maine  and  recorded  the  birth  of  a  daughter,  Kath- 
ren,  at  Ipswich  on  June  8th,  1658. 

In  1662,  Daniel  Stewart  was  received  as  inhabitant 
of  Barnstable  in  the  Colony  of  Massachusetts,  "and 
allowed  equal  privilege  on  the  commons  and  such 
other  privileges  as  belong  to  the  present  inhabitants 
as  a  township."  The  total  number  of  voters  in  the 
township  at  that  time  was  sixty-five. 

In  the  same  year,  1662,  another  member  of  the 
family,  Alexander  Stewart,  a  tailor  in  Charlestown, 
MassacVusetts,  is  recorded  as  having  married  Hannah 
Temp?  ,. 

"Att  a  Court  of  Assistants  held  at  Boston  in  New 
England  the  3rd  of  March,  1673,"  James  Stewart  was 
plaintiff  "on  appeale  relating  to  the  thirty  pounds  the 
Jury  found  against  him.  The  Jury  brought  in  their 
virdict,  they  found  for  the  plaintiff's  reversion  of  the 
former  judgment." 

Other  early  records  of  the  Colony  of  Massachusetts 
show  that  Hugh  Stewart  at  Yarmouth,  in  1676,  was 
taxed  £12.15.6  "towards  the  charge  of  the  late  war." 
Only  three  persons,  at  this  time,  paid  a  heavier  tax, 

History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family      71 

showing  the  importance  of  this  member  of  the  family 
in  the  community. 

Duncan  Stewart  was  one  of  the  earliest  shipbuilders 
in  the  Colony,  at  Newbury,  and  in  1680  removed  from 
that  place  to  Rowley,  where  he  died  at  the  age  of  one 
hundred,  in  1717. 

Among  the  inhabitants  of  Chatham^  Massachusetts, 
appear  the  names  of  Hugh  Stewart,  in  1696,  and  of 
William  Stewart,  in  1698;  and  at  Sandwich,  Massa- 
chusetts, between  the  years  1690  and  1706,  seven  chil- 
dren are  recorded  as  having  been  born  to  James  Stew- 
art and  his  wife.  Desire. 

The  name  of  Robert  Stewart  ap>pears  in  the  list  of 
Freemen  "appertaininge  unto  the  Plantation  of  Nor- 
walke,  taken  this  nth  of  October,  1669." 

In  1670,  John  Stuart  bought  a  lot  on  the  hill  at 
Albany,  New  York,  from  John  Conell.  In  1671, 
Stuart  appeared  before  the  Secretary  of  Albany  and 
acknowledged  that  he  was  well  and  honestly  indebted 
to  Goosen  Gerritse  in  the  quantity  of  thirty  whole 
and  good  beaver  skins  for  "two  pieces  of  duffels,'*  and 
twenty-seven  whole  and  good  beaver  skins  for  two 
pieces  of  blankets;  and  undertook  to  pay  the  beaver 
skins  during  the  next  trapping  season.  The  lot  on 
the  hill  was  sold  by  Stuart's  administrators  in  16751 

On  the  nth  of  July,  1691,  a  member  of  the  family 
who  was  an  early  settler  at  Hempstead,  Long  Island, 
presented  the  following  petition  to  the  proprietors 
and  freeholders  of  that  township :  "The  request  of 
John  Stuart  humbly  showeth  that  inasmuch  as  it 
has  pleased  God  to  make  me  a  master  of  a  family^  I 
finding  it  a  necessity  to  settle  myself,  I  am  willing  to 
settle  among  you,  to  follow  the  trade  of  a  cooper,  as 
also  to  practice  the  art  of  surgery.  I  do  therefore  request 
that  )  ou  be  pleased  to  give  me  a  right  of  eighteen  or 

72     History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family 

twenty  acres  of  land  that  is  tillable,  a  little  east  of 
the  Pine  Point,  near  the  Plain  Edge.  It  is  the  bit 
of  that  hollow,  called  the  Bloody  Hollow,  for  which  I 
shall  be  very  thankful,  and  also  ready  and  willing  to 
serve  }Ou  in  either  of  the  arts  aforesaid,  so  far  as  I 
have  understanding." 

The  Lords  Proprietors  of  the  Province  of  North 
Carolina  formulated  certain  charges  against  Governor 
Sothel,  in  1691,  among  such  charges  being  that  of 
detaining  "one  negro  and  seven  pewter  dishes"  from 
John  Stewart.  At  a  Court  of  the  Province  held  in 
1693,  Anne  Stewart  proved  "six  rights  viz:  four 
negroes  one  English  servant  and  Virgill  Simons,"  and 
in  the  same  year,  "At  a  Court  Holden  at  ye  house  of 
Mrs.  Diana  Ffoster  the  ffirst  Munday  in  November 
beng  ye  6th  day  of  the  moneth,"  Anne  Stewart  was 
granted  letters  of  administration  of  the  estate  of  Mrs. 
Stewart.  William  Stewart  and  his  wife  were  defend- 
ants in  a  case  "for  killing  a  cow  calfe  to  her  damage 
40  shillings,"  at  a  Court  held  on  loth  April,  1705,  and 
at  A  General  Court  of  Oyer  and  Terminer  for  the 
Province  of  North  Carolina  held  on  ist  November, 
1720,  William  Stewart  was  a  member  of  the  Grand 

A  sporting  member  of  the  family  made  his  appear- 
ance at  a  Court  of  the  Province  of  Virginia,  held  at 
Varina,  ist  April.  1698.  John  Stewart,  Jr.,  was  defend- 
ant in  a  suit  brought  by  Richard  Ward.  It  was  testi- 
fied that  Richard  Ward  had  agreed  to  run  a  mare 
named  Bony,  and  that  John  Stewart  had  agreed  to 
run  a  horse  named  Watt,  the  race  to  be  a  quarter  of 
a  mile,  the  horse  giving  the  mare  five  lengths.  Rich- 
ard Ward  laid  the  odds  of  ^6  to  the  ^5  of  John  Stew- 
art.   The  mare  won.  but  for  some  reason  not  stated 

History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family      73 

Stewart  would  not  pay  the  bet.  Ward  got  a  verdict 
for  the  amount. 

Patrick  Stuart,  Laird  of  Ledcreich  in  Balgheider, 
Perthshire,  with  his  wife  Elizabeth  and  children,  came 
with  six  other  gentlemen  from  Argyll,  and  above  three 
hundred  emigrants  from  Scotland,  to  Cape  Fear  in 
North  Carolina,  in  the  year  1739.  His  brother  Will- 
iam Stuart  was  also  in  the  party.  They  landed  at 
Wilmington  and  Stuart  first  settled  at  Brown's  Marsh, 
Bladen  County,  North  Carolina,  but  about  1766  moved 
to  near  Cheraws,  South  Carolina.  The  Laird  was  a 
staunch  supj^orter  of  Bonnie  Prince  Charlie,  and  when 
the  Prince  failed  to  establish  himself  on  the  throne, 
the  Laird  of  Ledcreich  severed  his  remaining  ties  with 
Scotland,  and  sold  his  estate  to  a  younger  brother. 
He  died  in  1772. 

Early  records  of  others  of  the  family  in  North 
Carolina  include  grants  of  land  to  John  Stewart  in 
1741  and  1 751;  and  in  1764,  the  second  newspaper 
published  in  the  Province  was  printed  b\'  Andrew 
Stewart,  a  native  of  Scotland.  It  was  named  the 
North  Carolina  Gazette  and  Weekly  Post  Boy,  the 
first  numl^er  being  published  in  September,   1764. 

The  family  of  John  Stewart  was  one  of  the  sixteen 
families  who,  in  the  spring  of  1719,  went  to  what  is 
now  the  State  of  New  Hampshire,  and  formed  a  town- 
ship which  they  named  Londonderry,  in  memory  of 
their  former  home  in  the  North  of  Ireland.  The 
father  of  John  Stewart  was  Robert  Stewart,  son  of 
Walter  Stewart  of  Perthshire.  Robert  was  one  of  the 
Covenanters  who  fought  at  the  Battle  of  Bothwell 
Bridge  in  167Q.  where  the  Covenanters  were  defeated 
with  great  ^nss.  four  hundred  being  killed  and  twelve 
hundred  ma^^e  prisoners.  Robert  Stewart  escaped  from 
Scotland  and  settled  in  the  North  of  Ireland,  at  Lon- 

74     History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family 

donderry.  After  the  siege  of  that  city  he  returned  to 
Scotland,  and  died  in  Edinburgh,  1714.  His  widow 
and  children  came  to  America,  landing  at  Boston  in 
October,  1718.  Their  son,  John  Stewart,  was  one  of 
the  grantees  of  the  new  town  of  Londonderry,  New 
Hampshire,  and  lived  at  a  farm  known  as  the  Precept 
Farm.  The  old  records  show  that  in  March,  1722 
a  lot  forty-nine  acres  at  Londonderry  was  laid  out 
to  John  Stewart,  and,  in  1728,  a  further  thirty-four 
acres  of  land  is  added.  In  1722,  he  was  appointed 
one  of  a  committee  for  bounding  "Ezekels  Pond," 
and,  in  1724,  was  elected  one  of  the  two  tithing  men, 
the  following  year  being  elected  "sirvayer."  On  the  20th 
December,  1731,  he  was  nominated  on  a  committee 
"to  consider  of  sending  a  call  or  calls  to  Ireland  in 
order  to  have  a  second  Minister  for  our  Congrega- 
tion." He  was  chosen  as  one  of  the  two  constables  of 
the  town  for  the  years  1734-35,  but  hired  another 
person  to  act  for  him. 

Other  records  of  this  pJeriod  show  that  Robert  Stew- 
art, a  brother  of  John,  settled  at  Andover.  Also  that 
Charles  Stewart  and  Mary,  his  wife,  were  married 
at  Londonderry  on  15th  November,  1727,  and  had  four 
children  born  between  the  years  1728  and  1733;  also 
that  John  Stuart  and  his  wife  had  a  son,  John,  born 
to  them  at  Londonderry',  on  the  29th  June,  1737.  In 
1722,  Walter  Stewart  of  Londonderry  married  Gizull 
Crumey  of  Boxford. 

The  General  Assembly  of  New  Hampshire,  in  1724, 
allowed  Walter  Stewart,  master  of  the  "Scooner  For- 
tune" a  "i:)ortlege"  bill  of  £17.4.6. 

The  first  permanent  settler  of  Pocock,  (now  Bristol), 
New  Hampshire  was  Samuel  Stewart,  who  was  later 
a  soldier  of  the  Revolution  in  the  Battle  of  Bunker 
Hill.     On  the  expiration  of  his  term  of  service  he  re- 

History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family      75 

turned  to  Pocock,  but  moved  to  Royalton,  in  1817, 
with  an  ox  team,  being  fifty-one  days  on  the  journey. 
The  Reverend  John  Stuart  was  the  son  of  Andrew 
Stuart  who  came  to  America  from  Omagh,  Ireland, 
in  the  year  1730.  Andrew  Stuart  had  three  other  sons, 
James,  Andrew  and  Charles.  James  died  young,  An- 
drew and  Charles  settled  in  the  western  part  of  Penn- 
sylvania. Andrew  Stuart,  the  father,  was  a  rigid  Pres- 
byterian, but  his  son  John,  born  at  Harrisburg,  Penn- 
sylvania, in  1740,  joined  the  Church  of  England,  going 
to  England  for  ordination,  where  he  received  Holy 
Orders  in  1770,  and  was  appointed  missionary  to  the 
Mohawks  at  Fort  Hunter.  In  1775,  the  War  of  the 
Revolution  began,  and  many  who  had  previously  been 
friends,  now  found  themselves  enemies.  John  Stuart 
did  not  at  first  experience  any  inconvenience,  and  re- 
mained undisturbed  at  Fort  Hunter  for  some  time, 
even  after  the  Declaration  of  Independence.  But,  as 
he  had  remained  loyal  to  the  British  Government,  his 
continued  residence  at  Fort  Hunter  became  danger- 
ous. After  his  house  was  attacked,  and  his  little  Church 
plundered,  he  removed  to  Schenectady,  from  whence 
he  was  ordered  to  "repair  with  family  forthwith  to 
the  State  of  Connecticut  until  his  exchange  could  be 
procured."  He,  however,  appeared  before  the  Com- 
missioners, "declared  his  readiness  to  convince  them 
he  had  not  corresponded  with  the  enemy,"  and  was 
paroled  with  orders  to  remain  at  Schenectady.  He 
finally  obtained  permission  to  emigrate  to  Canada, 
and  set  out  with  his  wife  and  family  on  19th  Sep^ 
tember,  1781,  and  arrived  at  St.  Johns  on  the  9th  of 
October,  occupying  three  weeks  on  a  journey  which 
is  now  performed  in  a  few  hours.  He  established 
himself  permanently  in  Canada,  although,  after  Great 
Britain  had  acknowledged  the  Independence  of  the 

76     History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stvurt  Family 

United  States,  he  was  invited  to  settle  in  the  Diocese 
of  Virginia.  The  Reverend  John  v^as  a  man  of  six 
feet  four  inches  in  height,  and  was  known  by  his  New 
York  State  friends  as  "The  Little  Gentleman,"  and 
later  the  title  of  "Father  of  the  Upper  Canada  Church" 
was  fitly  bestowed  on  him.    He  died  in  1811. 

Solomon  W.  Stewart,  born  in  County  Tyrone,  Ire- 
land, in  1754,  came  to  America  and  settled  in  Columbia 
County,  New  York.  He  was  a  Professor  of  Music,  and 
served  as  Adjutant  for  General  Lafayette  in  the  War 
of  the  Revolution. 

In  1753,  James  Stewart  petitioned  for  a  license  to 
purchase  from  the  Indians,  8,000  acres  of  land  on  the 
North  side  of  the  Mohawk  River  in  Albany  County, 
New  York.  In  the  following-  year  he  also  petitioned 
for  letters  p'atent  on  behalf  of  himself  and  others  for 
24,000  acres  of  land  in  the  same  locality. 

William  Stewart  was  born  near  Edinburgh  in  1740, 
and  came  to  America  in  1770.  His  son  John,  accom- 
panied him,  and  they  settled  at  Florida,  New  York 

In  the  first  Circus  that  ever  visited  Albany,  New 
York,  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Stewart  from  England  were  the 
riders.  Thev  had  no  canvas,  nothing  but  stakes  and 
ropes  forming  a  ring  for  the  riders,  and  collections 
were  taken  up  by  the  clown  among  the  audience. 

The  Secretary  of  the  Trustees  in  Georgia,  in  1733, 
ordered  Donald  Stewart,  a  freeholder  of  Georgia  and 
Master  of  the  Pilot  Sloop,  to  provision  his  boat  and 
be  on  hand  to  assist  any  ships  in  distress.  Donald 
was  cast  away  with  his  sloop  and  drowned  in  1740. 
He  was  hired  by  some  settlers  who  were  proceeding 
to  Augusta,  to  go  and  bring  their  families  and  effects 
from  Carolina.  Under  a  gale  of  wind  he  ran  upon  some 
shoals    and    his    vessel   was   staved    in,    his   son   and 

History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family      77 

another  escaping,  but  Donald  himself  was  lost  with 
his  vessel.  His  near  kinsman  of  the  same  name,  Don- 
ald Stewart,  about  the  same  time,  lost  his  life  through 
the  accidental  discharge  of  a  gun. 

John  Stewart  came  from  Edinburgh  about  the  year 
1723,  and  landed  in  North  Carolina,  from  where  he 
and  his  family  moved  to  Liberty  County,  Georgia. 
In  1750,  John  Stewart,  Senior,  late  of  South  Carolina, 
petitioned  for  a  grant  of  land  in  Georgia,  stating  that 
"he  had  settled  a  tract  of  land  and  cultivated  about 
forty  acres,  having  eight  negroes  now  in  the  Pro- 
vince and  also  thirteen  more,  with  a  wife  and  two 
children,  in  South  Carolina."  He  was  granted  five 
hundred  acres  on  the  middle  branch  of  North  New- 
port, and  later  obtained  a  further  five  hundred  acres. 
At  the  same  time,  1750,  John  Stewart,  Jr.,  was  granted 
five  hundred  acres  of  land  on  the  south  branch  of 
North  Newport,  he  having  eight  negroes  in  the  Pro- 
vince of  Georgia  and  nine  more  in  South  Carolina. 
Later,  in  1756,  he  obtained  a  further  grant  of  five  hun- 
dred acres  more,  he  then  having  nineteen  negroes,  and 
a  wife  and  two  children. 

Also  in  the  Province  of  Georgia,  a  grant  of  land 
on  the  River  Sapalo  was  made,  in  1750,  to  James 
Stewart,  "many  years  an  inhabitant  in  the  Southern 
part  of  this  Colony;"  and  of  land  in  Hardwicke  to 
Ann  Stewart.  Robert  Stewart,  in  1756,  and  James 
Stewart,  in  1757,  also  obtained  grants  of  land;  and 
in  1758,  Jojm  Stuart  obtained  a  grant  of  two  hundred 
and  fifty  acres  on  the  island  opposite  Abercorn. 

Lieutenant  William  Stewart  was  born  on  the  estates 
of  the  Stewarts  of  Fort  Stewart  at  Green  Hill,  County 
Donegal,  Ireland,  about  the  year  1738.  His  ancestors 
had  ef'^^ated  to  Ireland  from  Wigtownshire,  Scot- 
land.   He  came  to  America  in  1758,  probably  landing 

78     History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family 

at  Philadelphia.  In  1760,  he  married  Mary  Glass  and 
went  to  Meeting  House  Springs,  near  Carlisle,  Penn- 
sylvania. They  had  eleven  children.  He  entered  the 
first  ten  of  the  children  in  the  Family  Bible,  as 
Stuart;  but  when  the  eleventh  was  born  returned  to 
the  spelling,  Stewart.  Hence  his  descendants  have 
used  both  styles  of  orthography.  The  names  of  the 
children  are  entered  on  a  page  in  what  the  Lieutenant 
himself  describes,  "Wm.  Stuart  his  Bible  bought  in 
Carslile  from  John  Wilky — Wm,  Stuart  is  my  name, 
Do  not  stale  this  Book  for  fare  of  shame  For  onder 
nath  is  the  oner's  name."  When  the  Revolutionary 
War  commenced  William  Stewart  responded  to  the 
call,  and  enlisted  in  the  Cumberland  County  Militia. 
He  was  Lieutenant  in  Number  3  Company  of  Colonel 
John  Davis'  Regiment,  and  was  wounded  in  1777. 
In  1782,  he  again  enlisted  against  the  Indians,  and  for 
his  services  received  two  hundred  acres  of  land  on 
Indian  Run,  Mercer  County,  Pennsylvania. 

The  first  appearance  in  the  Colony  of  George  Stuart 
is  at  Marietta,  on  the  Susquehana  River,  where  he 
had  a  farm  as  early  as  1717.  His  farm  was  on  the 
east  bank  of  the  river  and  embraced  three  hundred 
and  fifty-seven  acres.  In  1722,  he  was  a  Justice  of 
the  Peace  for  Conestoga  Township,  and  when  the 
County  of  Lancaster  was  organized  he  was  app*ointed 
a  County  Commissioner.  In  1730  and  again  in  1732 
George  Stuart  was  elected  a  member  of  the  Provincial 
Assembly,  and  it  is  curious  to  find  recorded  that  he 
was  "licensed.  May  5th,  1730  to  sell  rum  by  the  small." 
He  died  in  January  1733,  while  attending  the  Assembly 
in  Philadelphia.  John  Stuart,  his  eldest  son,  probably 
came  over  with  his  father,  and  carried  on  the  farm 
after  his  father's  death.  Colonel  George  Steuart,  grand- 
son of  George  Stuart,  was  born  in  1736,  and  used  the 

History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family      79 

spelling  Steuart  during  the  chief  portion  of  his  life. 
The  old  Stuart  farm  passed  to  George,  but  there  is  no 
record  to  show  that  he  and  his  wife,  Margaret  Harris, 
whom  he  married  in  1758,  ever  occupied  the  farm. 
Their  eldest  child  was  born  while  they  were  living 
either  at  Elizabethtown  or  Carlisle,  and  while  they 
were  at  the  latter  place  the  farm  was  sold.  George 
Steuart  moved  to  Maryland,  settling  at  Deer  Creek, 
where  he  carried  on  a  farm  and  also  did  business  ag 
an  "innholder."  He  returned  to  Pennsylvania  in  1775, 
but  is  believed  to  be  the  same  as  "George  Stewart" 
whose  name  so  appears  on  the  roll  of  the  Maryland 
Company  of  Captain  Paca,  forming  part  of  the  Flying 
Camp  that  marched  to  Washington's  aid  in  1776.  On 
the  outbreak  of  the  Revolutionary  War,  George  Steu- 
art and  his  eldest  son  were  among  the  first  to  enter 
the  patriot  army.  In  1777,  he  was  appointed  to  the 
responsible  position  of  Sub-Lieutenant  of  the  County 
of  Cumberland,  Pennsylvania,  with  the  rank  of  Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel. There  wefe  four  Sub-Lieutenants 
whose  duty  it  was  to  furnish  supplies  and  reinforce- 
ments. The  territory  assigned  to  Lieutenant-Colonel 
Steuart  was  of  wide  area,  extending  west  to  the  border 
of  Westmoreland  County,  and  North  to  the  border  of 
Northumberland  County.  It  is  recorded  that  "he  took 
an  active  part  against  the  Indians  on  the  border  dur- 
ing the  Revolution."  After  the  War,  Steuart  was  gen- 
erally called  Colonel,  so  it  is  probable  he  rose  to  that 
rank  in  the  War.    He  died  in  1787. 

Lazarus  Stewart  came  to  America  in  1729.  Mar- 
garet, his  daughter  married  James  Stewart,  and  be- 
came the  mother  of  Captain  Lazarus  Stewart  of  the 
Colonial  and  Revolutionary  Wars. 

Other  early  arrivals  in  Pennsylvania  include  Archi- 
bald Stewart  who  arrived  in  1728,  removing  to  Augusta 

80     History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stvxirt  Family 

County,  Virginia  in  1730.  He  was  an  ancestor  of  Gen- 
eral J.  E.  B.  Stuart.  William  Stewart  was  born  in  1754 
and  came  to  Pennsylvania  in  1784.  He  married  Mar- 
garet Getty,  niece  of  the  founder  of  Gettysburgh. 
Robert  Stewart  was  born  at  Glasgow  and  died  in 
Ireland,  1730.  Two  of  his  sons,  Samuel  and  Hugh, 
came  to  America,  Samuel  settling  at  Chestnut  Level, 
Pennsylvania,  and  Hugh  at  Peshtauk. 

Robert  Stewart  of  the  County  of  Lancaster,  Penn- 
sylvania, was  appointed  Sheriff  of  the  County  in  1751. 
In  the  obligation  to  the  King,  the  name  is  spelled 

A  supfporter  of  the  Stuart  cause  in  the  rising  of 
1745,  David  Stuart  left  Scotland  in  1752  and  came 
to  the  Province  of  Virginia.  His  son  John,  after- 
wards Colonel  John  Stuart,  was  then  in  his  fourth 
year.  At  the  age  of  twenty-one  John  Stuart,  in  1769, 
crossed  the  mountains  to  the  Greenbrier  Valley.  It 
was  at  this  time  that  corn  was  first  cultivated  in  the 
county.  His  camping  place  was  near  the  present 
site  of  the  town  of  Frankfort.  Stuart  commanded 
a  Company  at  the  Battle  of  Point  Pleasant  on  the  loth 
October,  1744,  and  witnessed  the  murder  of  the  Shaw- 
nee Chief,  Cornstalk,  at  the  same  place  on  the  loth 
of  November  following.  He  rose  to  the  rank  of 
Colonel  in  the  border  wars.  Colonel  Stuart  also  led 
the  relief  from  Savannah,  in  1778,  which  saved  Don- 
nally's  Fort. 

In  the  year  1762  Robert  Stewart  was  Captain  and 
John  Stewart,  Surgeon,  of  the  Virginia  Regiment. 

A  prominent  figure  in  the  earlier  history  of  South 
Carolina  was  a  member  of  the  family  named  John 
Stuart.  He  first  came  to  America  at  the  time  of  the 
settlement  of  Georgia,  being  appointed  Superint'idcnt 
of  Indian  Affairs  for  the  Southern  District.     Friends 

History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family      81 

in  South  Carolina  obtained  that  office  for  him,  and 
placed  him  in  the  Council  of  the  Province.  When 
the  Revolutionary  War  opened  in  1775  he  was  in 
alliance  with  the  Loyalists  and  Indians,  and  was  com- 
pelled to  flee  to  Florida.  His  wife  and  daughter  re- 
mained in  South  Carolina,  and  were  detained  there, 
by  the  Provincial  Congress,  as  hostages  for  his  good 
behavior.  Mrs.  Stewart,  however,  escaped  and  the 
daughter  was  imprisoned  on  suspicion  of  assisting  her 
escape.  John  Stuart  went  to  England,  where  he 
died  before  peace  was  declared,  his  property  in  Amer- 
ica being  confiscated  in  1782.  His  son,  General  Sir 
John  Stuart  took  an  active  part  in  the  War  of  the 

At  Port  Royal  and  Charleston,  South  Carolina,  a 
new  Church  was  formed  in  1731,  worshipping  in  a 
small  wooden  building  with  the  Reverend  Hugh  Stew- 
art for  their  minister. 

The  General  Assembly  of  the  Colony  of  Connecti- 
cut, on  the  nth  May,  1710,  appointed  James  Stewart 
as  Ensign  of  the  North  Compiany  in  the  town  of  Nor- 
walk,  and,  in  1734,  appointed  William  Stuart  of  Ston- 
ington  to  be  Lieutenant  of  the  town  Company.  In 
1748,  the  General  Assembly  appointed  Samuel  Stew- 
art, Jr.,  as  Ensign  of  the  Norwalk  Company. 

An  entertainment  which  surpassed  in  sumptuous- 
ness  anything  before  exhibited  in  the  place,  was  given 
by  Matthew  Stewart  of  New  London,  when  he  re- 
turned to  New  London  from  Narragansett,  where  he 
had  been  married  on  the  19th  October,  1735. 

The  right  to  hold  a  lottery  for  the  disposal  of  his 
land  was,  in  1759,  granted  by  the  Assembly  to  Mlat- 
thew  Stewart  of  New  London,  whose  memorial  asking- 
such  right  showed  that  for  many  years  he  had  exer- 
cised himself  in  trade,  and  had  been  obliged  to  con- 

82     History  cf  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family 

tract  large  debts,  which  by  repeated  losses  at  sea  he 
was  unable  to  discharge. 

George  Home  Steuart  came  to  Annapolis,  Mary- 
land, in  1720,  from  Perthshire.  He  married  Ann 
Digges,  daughter  of  George  Digges  of  Maryland,  a 
descendant  of  Sir  Dudley  Digges  who  fell  fighting  in 
tlie  cause  of  Charles  I.  George  Home  Steuart  was 
an  M.  D,  of  the  University  of  Edinburgh,  and  rose 
to  great  prominence  in  Maryland. 

Among  the  immigrants  who  arrived  at  Boston  in 
1718,  and  settled  at  Lancaster  was  Margaret  Stuart 
from  Bovedy  in  the  County  of  Derry,  and  in  a  peti- 
tion to  the  Governor  of  New  England,  dated  26th 
March  of  the  same  year,  appears  the  name  of  James 

John  Stuart  was  admitted  a  freeman  of  the  Colony 
of  Rhode  Island  and  Providence  Plantations  on  the 
1st  May,  1730. 

The  famous  portrait  painter  Gilbert  Stuart  was 
born  in  Rhode  Island  in  1755.  He  was  the  son  of 
Galbert  Stuart  of  Newport,  who  built  the  first  snuflf 
mill  in  New  England.  Gilbert  Stuart,  the  artist, 
began  to  paint  almost  in  his  cradle,  having  orders  for 
portraits  by  the  time  he  was  thirteen  years  of  age.  To 
learn  his  art,  he  went  to  England  in  1772,  but  after 
two  years  returned  to  America.  In  the  last  ship 
which  sailed  before  the  blockade  of  Boston,  in  1775, 
Stuart  again  went  to  England,  determined  to  master 
his  deficiencies.  In  London  he  became  the  pupil  of 
West,  and  by  1785  set  up  for  himself.  His  success 
was  immediate,  no  one  but  Reynolds  and  Gains- 
borough obtaining  as  large  prices  for  their  pictures  as 
he.  In  1792,  he  returned  to  America,  and  after  paint- 
ing for  two  years  in  New  York  moved  to  Philadelphia, 
thence  to  Washington,  and  finally  settled  in  Boston, 

History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family      83 

where  he  resided  for  more  than  twenty  years  until 
his  death  in  1828.  During  his  career  he  produced  an 
exceedingly  large  number  of  portraits.  A  catalogue 
prepared  in  1880  gave  a  list  of  754,  but  this  was  ac- 
knowledged to  be  far  from  complete.  His  portraits  of 
Washington  are  numerous.  On  the  tablet  in  the  Hall 
of  Fame  are  his  words,  "The  portrait  of  George  Wash- 
ington was  undertaken  by  me.  It  had  indeed  been 
the  object  of  the  most  valuable  years  of  my  life  to 
obtain  the  portrait." 


HE  year  1774  saw  the  people  of  the  Amer- 
ican Colonies  for  the  first  time  recognize 
that  the  agitation  against  the  acts  of  the 
Government  of  Great  Britain  was  a  na- 
tional cause.  The  result  was  a  meeting  of  Delegates 
from  the  various  colonies,  known  as  the  First  Conti- 
nental Congress,  called  at  Philadelphia  on  the  5th 
September,  1774,  The  year  1775  saw  Lexington,  Con- 
cord, and  Bunker  Hill,  and  the  determination  of  the 
Colonies  to  resist  oppression  and  enforce  the  redress 
Cd  wrongs.  In  1776,  the  Declaration  of  Independence 
changed  a  war  of  principle  to  a  struggle  for  the 
separation  of  the  Colonies  from  the  rule  of  the  Eng- 
lish King. 

The  fighting  blood  of  the  Highland  Clan  proved 
true  to  old  tradition,  and  on  both  sides  of  the  conflict 
those  of  the  name  of  Stewart,  Steuart  and  Stuart 
took  a  memorable  part.  The  call  of  the  Continental 
Congress  found  a  quick  response,  and  many  of  the 
name  threw  in  their  lot  with  the  patriot  army,  and 
fought  from  Lexington  Green  to  Yorktown  for  the 
right  of  self  government. 

In  the  list  of  Continental  Army  Officers  the  follow- 
ing are  mentioned  as  holding  commissions  in  that 
section  of  the  forces  engaged : 

Commissary  General  Charles  Stewart,  Commissary 
of  Issues  from  1777  until  1782. 

Colonel  Walter  Stewart,  Pennsylvania,  brevetted 
Lieutenant-Colonel  by  Act  of  Congress  and  presented 
with  a  sword  of  honor,  November,  1776. 


History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family      85 

Lieutenant-Colonel  Christopher  Stuart,  Pennsyl- 
vania, taken  prisoner  at  Fort  Washington,  1776^  and 
exchanged  in  1777. 

Major  John  Stewart,  Maryland[,  the  hero  of  Stony 
Point,  mentioned  later. 

Major  Alexander  Stuart,  Virginia,  wounded  and 
taken  prisoner  at  Guilford,  1781. 

Captam  Charles  Stewart,  North  Carolina,  taken 
prisoner  at  Charleston,  1780;  exchanged.  May,  1781-; 
killed  at  Eutaw  Springs,  Septembefj  1781. 

Captain  William  Stewart,  Graham's  Regiment^  New 

Captain  Lazarus  Stewart,  PentLsylvania,  killed  at 
the  Wyoming  Massacre,  1778, 

Captain  and  Adjutant  William  Stewart,  Regimental 
Adjutant,  2nd  Canadians  (Hazen's)  Regiment,  "Con- 
gress' Own." 

Captain  James  Stewart,  Malcolm's  Regiment  and 
5th  New  York  Regiment, 

Captain  Robert  Stewart,  Flying  Camp. 

Adjutant  Solomon  W.  Stewart,  Adjutant  for  Gen- 
eral Lafayette, 

Lieutenant  Nicholas  Stewart,  2nd  North  Carolina 

Lieutenant  Philip  Stuart,  3rd  Continental  Dra- 
goons, led  the  forlorn  hop^  and  was  wounded  at 
Eutaw  Springs,  1781,  transferred  to  Baylor's  Regiment 
of  Dragoons  and  served  to  close  of  war.  He  was 
member  of  Congress  from  Maryland. 

Lieutenant  Alexander  Stewart,  Delaware,  wounded 
and  taken  prisoner  at  Long  Island,  1776. 

Lieutenant  Joseph  Stewart,  9t!i  North  Carolina 

Lieutenant  Charles  Stewart,  I5tb  and  nth  Virginia 

86     History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family 

Lieutenant  George  Stewart,  9th  North  Carolina 

Ensign  Charles  Stewart,  2nd  Connecticut  Regiment. 

Ensign  Walter  Stewart,  Jr.,  2nd  Pennsylvania  Regi- 

Ensign  John  Stewart,  4th  New  Jersey  Regiment. 

Ensign  Jacob  Stewart,  5th  Massachusetts  Regiment. 

Chaplain  Alexander  Stewart,  Knox's  Regiment  of 
Continental  Artillery. 

Quartermaster  Alexander  Stewart,  Malcolm's  Con- 
tinental Regiment. 

Surgeon  Alexander  Stewart,  Knox's  Regiment  of 
Continental  Artillery,  and  loth  and  3rd  Pennsylvania 

Surgeon's  Mate  Lewis  Stewart,  nth  Virginia  Regi- 

Commissary  General  Charles  Stewart  was  born  in 
Ireland,  1729,  of  Scottish  extraction.  His  grandfather 
of  the  same  name  was  a  Scottish  Officer  of  Dragoons, 
who,  for  services  at  the  Battle  of  the  Boyne,  was  given 
an  estate  in  Ireland.  The  grandson,  Charles  Stewart, 
came  to  America  in  1750,  and  became  a  deputy  sur- 
veyor general  of  the  Province  of  Pennsylvania.  In 
1774,  he  was  a  member  of  the  first  Convention  in  New 
Jersey  that  issued  a  declaration  of  rights  against  the 
aggression  of  the  Crown,  and,  in  1775,  a  delegate  to 
its  first  Provincial  Congress.  He  was  Colonel  of  the 
first  New  Jersey  Regiment  of  Minute  Men,  then  of 
the  2nd  New  Jersey  Regiment,  and,  in  1777,  was  ap- 
pointed by  Congress  Commissary  General  of  Issues 
in  the  Continental  Army,  serving  as  such  on  Wash- 
ington's Staff  until  the  close  of  the  War.  In  1784-85, 
he  was  a  Representative  from  New  Jersey  in  Con- 

Colonel   Walter   Stewart   was   born   in    1756.     He 

History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family      87 

raised  a  company  of  the  3rd  Pennsylvania  Battalion, 
and  was  commissioned  Captain  in  1776,  being  ap>- 
pointed  aid-de-camp  to  General  Gates  the  same  year. 
In  1777  he  was  promoted  Colonel  of  the  Pennsylvania 
State  Regiment,  and  led  it  at  Brandywine  and  Ger- 
mantown.  He  retired  in  1783  v/ith  the  rank  of  Brig>- 
dier-General,  and  was  said  to  be  the  handsomest  man 
in  the  American  Army,  He  was  a  personal  friend  of 
George  Washington,  who  presented  a  miniature  oi 
himself  set  in  diamonds  to  General  Stewart's  daughter, 
on  the  occasion  of  her  marriage  to  Judge  Church. 

Major  John  Stewart  of  the  Maryland  troops  dis- 
tinguished himself  at  the  storming  of  Stony  Point, 
one  of  the  most  brilliant  events  of  the  War.  At  the 
head  of  one  hundred  men  v/ho  had  volunteered  for 
the  desperate  assault,  Major  Stev/art  fought  his  way 
into  the  Fort  with  the  bayonet.  It  was  half  past  eleven 
at  night  when  the  Americans  commenced  their  silent 
march  towards  the  Fort.  All  the  dogs  in  the  neigh- 
borhood had  been  killed  the  day  before,  that  their 
barking  might  not  give  notice  of  strangers  near.  The 
Americans  were  undiscovered  until  within  pistol  shot 
of  the  enemy  pickets  upon  the  heights,  when  the  silence 
was  broken  by  the  roll  of  drum,  the  rattle  of  musketry, 
and  the  roar  of  cannon  charged  with  the  deadly  grape 
shot.  In  the  face  of  this  terrible  storm,  the  little  band 
of  volunteers  forced  their  way  at  the  point  of  the  bayo' 
net  until  they  reached  the  center  of  the  works,  and  the 
Fort  was  taken.  A  silver  medal  was  voted  by  Con- 
gress to  Major  Stewart.  The  medal  represents  Amer- 
ica, personified  by  an  Indian  Queen,  who  is  presenting 
a  palm  branch  to  Major  Stewart.  The  legend  is, 
*Joanni  Stewart  Cohortis  Praefecto,  Comitia  Ameri- 
cana." On  the  reverse  is  a  fortress  on  an  eminence, 
in  the  foreground  an  officer  cheering  on  his  men.    He 

88     History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family 

also  received  the  thanks  of  the  Maryland  Legislature. 
Later  he  commanded  a  Corps  of  Light  Infantry,  and 
on  31st  August,  1778  had  a  severe  engagement  at 
Indian  Field  v^^ith  Colonel  Emmenck's  command. 
Major  Stewart  was  killed  by  a  fall  from  his  horse  at 
Charleston,  South  Carolina. 

Captain  John  Stewart  was  born  at  Londonderry, 
New  Nampshire,  in  1745,  and  enlisted  in  the  French 
and  Indian  War  when  only  fourteen  years  of  age.  He 
took  part  in  the  fight  with  Indians  at  Oriskany,  and 
was  at  the  taking  of  Montreal  in  1760.  He  served 
under  General  Montgomery,  being  at  the  second  cap- 
ture of  Montreal  in  1775,  and  through  the  Revolution- 
ary War  under  Colonel  McCracken.  It  is  said,  that 
after  the  War  he  refused  a  pension,  saying,  "I  want 
no  pay  for  having  served  my  country."  He  died  at 
Middleburg,  Vermont,  1829  . 

Ten  of  the  then  thirteen  States  are  represented  in 
the  Continental  Army  by  Officers  of  the  family  name, 
viz :  Delaware,  Massachusetts,  New  York,  North  Caro- 
lina, Pennsylvania,  Connecticut,  New  Jersey,  Virginia, 
Maryland,  New  Hampshire. 

In  addition  to  the  Officers  in  the  Continental  Army, 
the  family  was  equally  well  represented  in  the  other 
troops  of  different  States.  It  is  not  possible  to  make  in- 
dividual mention  of  each  hardy  hero  of  the  name  who' 
braved  the  horrors  of  that  memorable  War,  and  shared 
the  honor  of  the  ultimate  victory.  There  were  229 
soldiers  of  the  name  of  Stewart,  Steuart  and  Stuart 
from  the  one  Colony  of  Massachusetts  alone!  And 
from  each  of  the  thirteen  States  the  men  of  the  old 
Clan  came  forth  to  battle.  Mention  may.  however,  be 
made  of  the  following,  who,  amongf  others  of  the 
name,  served  as  Officers  in  the  Militia  and  Levies 
of  the  States :  Colonel  Charles  Stewart.  New  Jersey 

History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family      89 

Militia,  afterwards  Commissionary  General,  Contin- 
ental Army;  Lieutenant  Colonel  George  Stewart, 
Pennsylvania;  Captain  Solomon  Steuart,  Massachu- 
setts Militia;  Captain  Lemuel  Stewart,  Massachu- 
setts Militia;  Captain  James  Stewart,  Connecticut 
Militia;  Captain  James  Stewart,  Western  Battalion, 
New  Jersey  Militia;  Captain  Stuart,  Virginia  Militia; 
Captain  W.  Stewart,  3rd  Pennsylvania  Militia;  Cap- 
tain C,  Stuart,  Pennsylvania  Militia;  Captain  James 
Stewart,  New  York  Militia ;  Captain  George  Stewart, 
Maryland  Militia ;  Captain  Patrick  Stewart,  North 
Carolina  Minute  Men;  Captain  John  Stewart,  New 
Jersey  Militia;  Captain  John  Stewart,  New  Hamp- 
shire Militia;  Captaljn  Solomon  Stuart,  Whitney's 
Regiment,  Massachusetts  Militia,  marched  April  21st, 
1775,  in  response  to  the  alarm  of  19th  April;  Captain 
Wentworth  Stewart,  Phinney's  Regiment,  Massachu- 
setts Militia;  Lieutenant  John  Stewart,  Connecticut 
Militia ;  Lieutenant  William  Stewart,  New  Hampshire 
Militia,  of  Londonderry,  was  one  of  the  Minute  Men 
who  marched  on  the  Lexington  Alarm  in  April,  1775 ; 
Lieutenant  John  Stewart,  New  Hampshire  Militia; 
Lieutenant  James  Stuart,  Pennsylvania  Militia;  Lieu- 
tenant Robert  Stewart,  New  York  Militia;  Lieutenant 
Charles  Stuart,  New  York  Militia;  Lieutenant  Will- 
iam Stewart,  Vermont  Militia ;  Lieutenant  Charles 
Stuart,  Jr.,  New  York  Militia;  Lieutenant  Charles 
Stewart,  New  York  Levies;  Lieutenant  Alexander 
Stuart,  Marv'land  Militia;  Lieutenant  William  Stew- 
art, Pennsylvania;  Lieutenant  Richard  Stewart,  Penn- 
sylvania Militia;  Adjutant  William  Stewart,  Penn- 
sylvania Militia;  Ensign  Joseph  Stewart,  Jr.,  Ver- 
mont Militia;  Ensign  James  Stewart,  New  York  Mili- 
tia;   Ensign    Robert   Stewart,    Pennsylvania    Militia; 

90      History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family 

Ensign  Joseph  Stewart,  Massachusetts  Militia;  En- 
sign Joseph  Stewart,  New  York  Militia;  Master-at- 
Arms  David  Stewart,  Massachusetts. 

Before  the  commencement  of  the  War  of  the  Revo- 
lution, the  Brig  "Peggy  Stewart"  arrived  at  Annapolis, 
on  15th  October,  1774,  from  England,  with  an  assorted 
cargo.  Anthony  Stewart,  the  owner  of  the  brig,  was 
one  of  the  signers  of  the  non-importation  agreement 
entered  into  by  the  Maryland  Association;  but  in 
order  to  land  the  rest  of  the  cargo  he  paid  the  duty 
on  the  tea.  The  people  were  indignant  at  what  they 
considered  his  treason  and  defiance.  Stewart  was 
very  contrite,  and  offered  to  burn  the  tea  publicly. 
His  offer  was  refused,  as  it  was  desired  that  Stewart, 
as  a  recreant  Associator  should  be  more  severly  pun- 
ished. It  was  demanded  that  the  brig  "Peggy  Stew- 
art," itself  should  be  burned,  and  Stewart,  seeing  there 
was  no  escape,  burnt  the  brig  with  his  own  hands, 
his  wife  Peggy,  for  whom  the  brig  was  named,  watch- 
ing the  flames  from  her  chamber  window. 

The  member  of  the  family  whose  name  is  most 
prominent  in  connection  with  the  War  of  1812  was 
Rear  Admiral  Charles  Stewart,  "Old  Ironsides."  He 
was  born  in  Philadelphia  on  the  22nd  July,  1776.  His 
father  came  to  America  at  an  early  age,  and  was, 
later,  in  the  merchant  service.  Charles  was  the  young- 
est of  eight  children,  and  at  the  age  of  thirteen  went 
as  cabin  boy  in  a  merchant  ship,  rising  rapidly  to 
the  command  of  an  Indiaman.  In  March,  1798,  he 
was  commissioned  Lieutenant  in  the  United  States 
Navy,  and  made  his  first  cruise  under  Commodore 
Barney,  operating  against  French  privateers.  In  1800, 
he  was  appointed  to  the  command  of  the  armed 
Schooner,  "Experiment,"  and  cruised  in  the  West 
Indies  where  he  rendered  efficient  service,  capturing 

History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family      91 

the  French  schooner,  "Deux  Amis",  and  the  "Diana" ; 
besides  recapturing  a  number  of  American  vessels 
which  had  been  taken  by  the  privateers.  In  1802,  he 
served  as  executive  of  the  frigate  "Constellation", 
blockading  Tripoli,  but  returned  in  1803  ^^^  was 
placed  in  command  of  the  brig  "Siren".  In  this  vessel 
he  was  engaged  in  the  expedition  to  destroy  the 
frigate  "Philadelphia",  and  susequently  in  the  siege 
of  Tripoli.  In  1806,  he  was  made  Captain,  and,  in 
1812,  took  command  of  the  frigate  "Constellation", 
and  assisted  in  defending  the  coast  from  English  at- 
tacks. In  December,  1813,  he  sailed  in  command  of 
the  frigate  "Constitution,"  in  which  he  took  the 
British  ships  "Cyane"  and  "Levant."  He  and  his 
prizes  were  chased  by  the  British  ships  "Leander", 
"Newcastle"  and  "Alcaster",  and  the  "Levant"  was 
retaken,  but  Stewart  and  his  other  prize  escaped.  One 
of  the  British  ships,  the  "Newcastle"  of  fifty  guns 
was  in  command  of  another  member  of  the  family, 
Lord  George  Stuart.  On  Charles  Stewart's  return  to 
America  he  was  received  with  the  highest  honors,  a 
gold  medal  was  ordered  to  be  struck  by  Congress, 
and  the  Legislature  of  Pennsylvania  presented  him 
with  a  gold  handled  sword.  He  also  received  the 
Freedom  of  the  City  New  York.  It  was  from  his 
ship,  the  "Constitution",  that  Stewart  was  affection- 
ately known  as  "Old  Ironsides."  After  the  War  he 
was  placed  in  command  of  the  "Franklin",  and  was 
later  employed  ashore  in  the  naval  service  of  his  coun- 
try. He  was  retired  as  Senior  Commodore  in  1856, 
and,  on  i6th  July,  1862,  was  commissioned  Rear  Ad- 
miral, after  which  he  was  on  waiting  orders  until 
his  death  in  1869.    An  anonymous  poet  wrote  of  him, 

"Oh  oft  may  you  meet  with  brave  Stewart, 
The  tar  with  the  free  and  true  heart; 

92      History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family 

A  bright  welcome  smile,  and  a  soul  free  from  guile. 
You'll  find  in  the  hero,  Charles  Stewart." 

His  daughter,  Delia  Tudor  Stewart,  married  Charles 
Henry  Parnell,  and  became  the  mother  of  Charles 
Stewart  Parnell,  the  Irish   Home  Rule  leader. 

The  following  other  members  of  the  family  served 
as  Officers  of  the  military  forces  of  the  United  States 
during  the  War  of  1812;  Captain  Rufus  Stewart, 
Vermont ;  Captain  James  Stuart,  Tennessee ;  Captain 
Thomas  Stuart,  Tennessee ;  Lieutenant  William  Steu- 
art,  Matyland;  Lieutenant  Alexander  Stuart,  Mary- 
land; Lieutenant  Charles  Stewart,  15th  New  York 
Infantry ;  Lieutenant  James  Stewart,  22nd  Infantry ; 
Lieutenant  William  Stewart,  Kentucky ;  Lieutenant 
John  Stewart,  South  Carolina ;  Lieutenant  James  M. 
Stewart,  Pennsylvania;  Lieutenant  Robert  Stewart, 
Delaware ;  Lieutenant  Charles  S.  Stuart,  Pennsylvania ; 
Lieutenant  Rice  L.  Stewart,  Kentucky;  Lieutenant 
John  Stewart,  Pennsylvania;  Surgeon  James  V.  Stew- 
art, Pennsylvania;  Surgeon's  Mate  Abraham  Stewart, 

In  the  War  with  Mexico,  1846-1848,  the  family  was 
again  well  represented  among  the  Officers  engaged : 
Lieutenant-Colonel  Adam  D,  Steuart,  Virginia,  bre- 
vetted  Lieutenant-Colonel  for  meritorious  conduct 
while  serving  in  the  enemy's  country;  Captain  James 
Stuart,  South  Carolina,  brevetted  First  Lieutenant 
for  gallant  and  meritorious  conduct  in  the  Battles  of 
Contreras  and  Churubusco,  and  Captain  for  gallant 
and  meritorious  conduct  in  the  Battle  of  Chapultepec ; 
Captain  James  E.  Steaart,  Maryland;  Captain  Benja- 
min F.  Stewart,  Kentucky;  Captain  George  F.  Stew- 
art, Mississippi  Rifles;  Captain  Richard  A.  Stewart, 
Louisiana;  Captain  Robert  M.  Stewart,  Missouri; 
Captain     William     W.     Stewart,     Louisiana;     Cap- 

History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family      93 

tain  Robert  W.  Stewart,  Louisiana;  Lieutenant 
James  M.  Stuart,  Michigan ;  Lieutenant  William  P. 
Stewart,  Ohio;  Lieutenant  John  W.  Stewart,  South 
Carolina;  Lieutenant  George  C.  Stewart,  Arkansas; 
Lieutenant  D.  M.  Stewart,  Florida;  Lieutenant  James 
E.  Stewart,  Mississippi  Rifles;  Lieutenant  Samuel  D. 
Stuart,  Ohio ;  Lieutenant  John  W.  Stewart,  Missis- 
sippi Rifles  ;  Lieutenant  Alexander  Stewart,  Arkansas  ; 
Lieutenant  James  M.  Stewart,  Missouri ;  Lieutenant 
Joseph  Stewart.  Kentucky;  Lieutenant  George  H. 
Steuart,  Maryland,  and  of  the  Confederate  States 
Army  in  the  Civil  War;  Lieutenant  and  Paymaster 
Josephus  B.  Stuart,  Kentucky;  Surgeon  James  D. 
Stuart,  Kentucky. 

Political  strife  had  for  many  years  been  undermin- 
ing the  ties  connecting  the  North  and  South,  and 
before  the  New  Year  of  1861  had  commenced,  South 
Carolina  had  declared  its  independence,  the  other 
Southern  States  in  turn  seceding,  until  North  and 
South  were  openly  arrayed  against  each  other.  The 
first  shell  at  Fort  Sumter,  on  the  12th  of  April,  1861, 
was  the  signal  for  the  commencement  of  four  years  of 
internecine  strife  and  Civil  War. 

The  Official  Records  of  the  Union  and  Confederate 
Armies  contain  312  references  to  the  name  of  .Stew- 
art, Steuart  and  Stuart,  but  as,  in  a  great  number  of 
instances,  several  of  the  same  given  name  are  covered 
by  one  reference,  this  figure  does  not  correctly  denote 
the  total  number  of  the  name  enrolled.  Further,  many 
of  the  States  and  Territories  to  whom  no  quotas  were 
assigned  furnished  troops,  and  many  men  were  en- 
rolled on  short  enlistments. 

Among  Officers  of  the  family  name  in  the  United 
States  Arm  during  the  Civil  War  were:  Brigadier- 
General  James  Stewart,  Jr.;  Brigadier-General  Will- 

94      History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Famuy 

iam  S.  Stewart,  brevetted  Brigadier-General  for  gal- 
lant and  meritorious  service  during  the  War;  Briga- 
dier-General William  W.  Stewart,  brevetted  Colonel 
of  Volunteers  for  gallant  conduct  at  the  Battles  of  the 
Wilderness  and  Spotsylvania  and  Brigadier-General 
for  gallant  conduct  at  the  Battle  of  North  Anna; 
Brigadier-General  David  Stuart;  Colonel  Charles  S. 
Stewart;  Colonel  James  Stewart;  Lieutenant-Colonel 
Adam  D.  Steuart,  also  served  in  the  War  with  Mexico; 
Lieutenant-Colonel  Andrew  Stewart,  Jr.,  brevetted 
Major  for  gallant  and  meritorious  service  at  Plymouth 
and  Lieutenant-Colonel  for  meritorious  service  during 
the  War;  Lieutenant-Colonel  Isaac  S.  Stewart;  Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel William  D.  Stewart;  Major  Lyman 
Y.  Stuart;  Major  R.  T.  Stewart;  Major  Charles  Stew- 
art, brevetted  for  faithful  and  meritorious  ser- 
vice; Major  John  Stewart,  brevetted  for  efficient  and 
faithful  service  during  the  Atlanta  Campaign ;  Major 
James  H.  Stewart;  Captain  William  J.  Stewart;  Cap- 
tain Charles  Stewart;  Captain  William  H.  Stewart; 
Captain  Frederick  V.  Stewart ;  Paymaster  William  H. 
Steuart;  Chaplain  Isaac  I.  Stewart;  Assistant-Adju- 
tant-General Andrew  Stewart,  was  confined  in  Libby, 
Macon,  and  other  Southern  prisons  for  over  a  year. 
Volunteering  obtained,  in  the  North,  until  late  in  the 
third  year  of  the  War,  and  large  numbers  were  raised 
in  the  States  and  Territories.  In  the  third  year,  the 
draft  also  went  into  effect  in  most  of  the  States.  In- 
cluded in  the  List  of  Field  Officers  of  these  forces  are 
the  names  of  several  of  the  family,  among  whom  are : 
Colonel  Charles  E.  Stuart,  Michigan ;  Colonel  Warren 
Stewart,  Illinois;  Colonel  Elias  Stuart,  Illinois;  Col- 
onel James  Stuart,  Illinois;  Colonel  Charles  H.  Stew- 
art, New  York;  Colonel  Charles  B.  Stuart,  New  York; 
Lieutenant-Colonel    Franklin    B.    Stewart,    Pennsyl- 

History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family      95 

vania;  Lieutenant-Colonel  Charles  Stewart,  Pennsyl- 
vania; Lieutenant-Colonel  Milton  Stewart,  West  Vir- 
ginia; Lieutenant-Colonel  James  W.  Stewart,  Indi- 
ana; Lieutenant-Colonel  Owen  Stuart,  Illinois;  Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Robert  R.  Stewart,  Indiana ;  Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel Chapman  J.  Stuart,  West  Virginia;  Major 
Joseph  M.  Stuart,  Ohio;  Major  Gordon  A.  Stewart, 
Ohio;  Major  Samuel  B.  Stewart,  Illinois;  Major  Israel 
W.  Stewart,  Missouri;  Major  Robert  E.  Stewart,  U. 
S.  Colored  Infantry;  Major  John  W.  Stewart,  Illinois. 
With  the  Light  Batteries  were.  Captain  Arthur  Stuart, 
Stuart's  Battery,  Pennsylvania  Militia  and  Captain 
William  Stuart,  3rd  New  York  Battery. 

Brigadier-General  David  Stuart  of  the  United  States 
Army  was  born  in  Brookl}^,  New  York,  18 16.  He  re- 
moved to  Detroit,  Michigan,  where  he  practiced  law, 
and  was  a  Democratic  Representative  in  the  33rd  Con- 
gress, 1853-1855.  He  removed  to  Chicago  and,  on  31st 
October,  1861,  was  commissioned  Colonel  of  the  55th 
Illinois  Volunteers.  He  was  given  command  of  the 
2nd  Brigade,  Sherman's  Division,  in  1862,  and  at  the 
Battle  of  Shiloh  was  stationed  on  the  extreme  left,  and 
severely  wounded  in  the  left  shoulder.  In  Novem- 
ber, 1862,  Colonel  Stuart  was  nominated  Brigadier- 
General,  and  commanded  the  4th  Brigade,  Smith's 
Division,  succeeding  to  the  command  when  General 
Smith  was  wounded  at  Chickasaw  Bayou.  Later,  he 
commanded  a  Division,  and  took  important  part  in 
the  capture  of  Arkansas  Post,  in  1863. 

Colonel  Charles  S.  Stewart,  great  grandson  of  Rear 
Admiral  Charles  Stewart,  was  graduated  in  1823  from 
the  United  States  Military  Academ  ',  where  he  was 
Assistant  Professor  of  Engineering,  i8t9-!:4.  He  was 
made  Lieutenant  of  the  Corps  of  Engineers  in  1853, 
and  as  Assistant  Engineer  from  1854  to  iS"7,  and  then 

96     History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family 

as  Superintending  Engineer,  served  in  the  construc- 
tion of  the  defenses  of  Boston  Harbor  until  1861. 
In  i860  he  was  promoted  Captain.  During  the  Civil 
War  he  served  in  the  Corps  of  Engineers,  was  made 
Major  in  1863,  and  was  Chief  Engineer  of  the  Middle 
Military  Division  in  1864  and  1865.  He  was  promoted 
Lieutenant-Colonel  in  1867,  ^^^  Colonel  in  1882. 

In  the  sister  branch  of  the  Union  Forces  the  family- 
was  also  well  represented ;  among  the  officers  serving 
in  the  United  States  Navy  during  the  Civil  War,  being 
Rear-Admiral  Charles  Stewart,  the  hero  of  the  War 
of  1812,  who  retired  21st  December,  1862  and  died 
November,  1869;  Rear- Admiral  and  Paymaster  Gen- 
eral Edwin  Stewart;  Lieutenant  Frederick  D,  Stuart; 
Gunner  Charles  Stuart;  Gunner  Thomas  Stewart;  En- 
sign Charles  A.  Stewart;  Ensign  David  A.  Stewart; 
Midshipman  Daniel  D.  V.  Stuart  afterwards  Rear-Ad- 
miral ;  Master  and  Pilot  William  Stewart ;  Mate  James 
M.  Stewart;  Engineer  Henry  V.  Stewart;  Engineer 
Charles  A.  Stuart;  Engineer  Frederick  D.  Stuart,  Jr.; 
Engineer  Alexander  C.  Stuart;  Engineer  William  M. 
Stewart ;  Engineer  Albert  Stewart ;  Pa}  master  A. 
Murray  Stewart ;  Paymaster  Charles  Stewart ;  Chap- 
lain William  H.  Stewart;  Chaplain  Charles  S.  Stewart. 

Paymaster-General  Edwin  Stewart  was  born  in  New 
York  City  in  1837.  While  studying  law  he  was  ap- 
pointed Assistant  Paymaster  in  the  Navy  in  Septem- 
ber, i86r.  In  1862,  he  was  promoted  to  the  grade  of 
Paymaster,  and  ordered  to  the  "Richmond"  in  the 
South  Atlantic  Squadron,  to  which  ship  he  was  at- 
tached during  the  three  most  eventful  years  of  her 
career.  At  the  end  of  the  War  he  was  assigned  to 
duty  on  the  Lakes,  and  from  1869  he  was  three  vears 
in  charge  of  the  Purchasing  Pay  Office.  In  1880  he 
was  commissioned  Pay  Inspector,  and  in  i8qo  became 

History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family      97 

Paymaster-General  of  the  Navy.  He  was  promoted 
Rear  Admiral  in  1899. 

Eliza  D.  Stewart,  ''Mother  Stewart",  gave  herself 
up  to  the  task  of  collecting  and  forwarding  supplies  to 
the  sick  and  wounded  soldiers.  Subsequently  she 
went  to  the  front  and  there  received  from  the  soldiers 
the  title  of  "Mother  Stewart". 

In  the  South,  a  great  number  of  the  name  of  Stew- 
art, Steuart  and  Stuart  considered  allegiance  to  their 
State  of  supreme  importance,  and  fought  bravely  with 
the  Army  of  the  Confederate  States.  Three  Generals, 
representing  each  spelling  of  the  name,  are  the  most 
prominent  in  the  record  of  the  family  with  the  South- 
ern forces. 

One  of  the  most  brilliant  and  picturesque  figures 
of  the  War,  General  James  Ewell  Brown  Stuart  was 
a  Virginian  by  birth  and  not  yet  thirty  years  old, 
having  been  born  in  Patrick  County,  Virginia,  in  1833. 
He  was  of  Scottish  descent,  his  ancestors  coming  to 
America  in  1726,  first  settling  in  Pennsylvania  and 
later  removing  to  Virginia.  In  1850  he  obtained  an 
appointment  to  the  United  States  Military  Academy 
at  West  Point,  where  he  graduated  in  1854,  and  was 
commissioned  Second  Lieutenant  in  a  regiment  of 
mounted  riflemen  serving  in  Texas.  Later  he  was 
transferred  to  the  ist  Regiment  of  United  States  Cav- 
alry, and  was  wounded  in  the  Indian  warfare  at  Solo- 
mon's River.  When  the  Civil  War  commenced  he 
was  therefore  a  Lieutenant  in  the  United  States  Cav- 
alry, but  as  soon  as  his  State,  Virginia,  seceded,  he 
resigned  his  commission  and  joined  the  Confederate 
forces,  being  commissioned  Lieutenant-Colonel  on  the 
loth  May,  1861.  The  same  year,  on  i6th  July,  he  was 
brevetted  Colonel  of  Cavalry,  and  on  24th  September, 
he  was  made  Brigadier-General.     He  was  p^romoted 

98     History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family 

Major  General  on  the  25th  July,  1862.  On  the  open- 
ing of  hostilities  he  joined  Johnston  in  the  Valley, 
and  impressed  him  with  a  high  opinion  of  his  abilities. 
At  Manassas  he  charged  and  broke  a  regiment  of 
Zouaves,  and  protected  the  rear  of  the  army  when 
Johnston  retired,  marching  and  countermarching  in 
such  a  way  as  to  make  the  impression  that  the  cavalry 
was  twice  as  many  as  they  really  were.  At  Bull  Run 
he  did  much  to  give  the  victory  to  the  Confederates, 
and  at  the  Battle  of  Deanesville,  24th  December,  1861, 
was  in  command  of  four  regiments  of  infantry.  In 
June,  1862,  Stuart  conducted  the  reconnaissance  to 
the  rear  of  McClellan's  army,  known  as  the  Chicka- 
hominy  Raid,  and  in  August  took  an  active  and  brill- 
iant part  in  the  seven  days  fight  at  Richmond.  He 
made  another  daring  expedition,  crossing  the  Rappa- 
hannock and  raiding  General  Pope's  camp  and  the 
Federal  depot  at  Manassas,  capturing  a  large  number 
of  prisoners  and  booty.  After  much  valuable  service 
at  the  second  Battle  of  Bull  Run  and  at  Sharpsburg, 
General  Stuart,  at  the  head  of  18,000  picked  Cavalry, 
conducted  the  celebrated  raid  on  Chambersburg,  in 
which  he  captured  30  United  States  Government  offi- 
cials, 286  prisoners  and  1,200  horses.  At  Chancellors- 
ville.  General  Stuart  personally  led  the  charge  that 
resulted  in  carrying  Hazel  Green  Ridge,  the  strategic 
point,  his  battle  cry  being,  "Charge — and  remember 
Jackson."  He  was  mortally  wounded  in  the  cavalry 
fight  at  Yellow  Tavern,  but  continued  urging  on  his 
men,  who  were  retreating,  "Go  back !  Go  back !  I 
had  rather  die  than  be  whipped."  These  words  of 
soldierly  entreaty  were  the  last  he  uttered  on  the  battle- 
field. He  died  at  Richmond,  Virginia,  on  12th  June, 
1864.  In  person,  General  J.  E.  B.  Stuart,  "Jeb",  was 
of  medium  height,  broad  and   powerful ;  he  wor^  a 

History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stimrt  Family      99 

heavy  brown  beard  flowing  upon  his  breast,  a  huge 
moustache  with  ends  curHng  up\vards,  and  the  blue 
eyes  had  at  times  the  dazzling  brilliancy  attributed 
to  the  eyes  of  an  eagle.  Young,  ardent,  ambitious, 
as  brave  as  steel,  ready  with  jest  or  laughter,  with 
his  banjo  player  following  him,  going  into  the  hottest 
fight  a  song,  this  young  Virginian  was  fn 
truth  an  original  character.  To  him,  the  war  seemed 
to  be  a  splendid  and  exciting  game.  He  swung  him- 
self into  the  saddle  at  the  sound  of  the  bugle,  as  the 
hunter  springs  on  horseback.  So  this  joyous  cavalier, 
with  his  floating  plume  and  splendid  laughter,  ap- 
peared upon  the  great  arena  of  the  war  in  Virginhi. 
Lee  said  when  he  was  mortally  wounded,  "I  can 
scarcely  think  of  him  without  weeping,"  and  a  gener- 
ous foe.  General  Sedg^vick  of  the  United  States  Army, 
said,  "Stuart  is  the  best  Cavalry  Officer  ever  foaled 
in  North  America." 

Lieutenant-General  Alexander  P.  Stewart  was  born 
at  Rogersville,  Tennessee,  1821,  a  descendant  of  the 
main  line  of  the  family.  He  graduated  from  the 
United  States  Military  Academy  in  1842,  but  resigned 
his  commission  in  1845.  He  joined  the  Confederate 
Army  in  1861  as  Major  of  Artillery,  and  was  promoted 
Brigadier-General  in  November  of  the  same  year.  Upon 
the  disablement  of  General  Charles  Clark  at  Shiloh,  he 
succeeded  to  the  command  of  the  Division.  He  com- 
manded the  2nd  Brigade,  Cheatham's  Division,  at 
Perryville,  and  at  Stone's  River.  He  was  promoted 
Major-General  in  June,  1863,  commanding  a  Division 
during  the  Chattanooga  Campaign.  Promotion  to  Lieu- 
tenant-General followed,  with  the  command  of  the 
Army  of  the  Mississippi,  which  subsequently  became 
known  as  Stewart's  Corps.  He  was  in  the  Atlanta 
Campaign  in  1864,  in  the  Battles  of  Peach  Tree  Creek 

100    History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family 

and  Mount  Ezra,  in  Hood's  Campaign  into  Tennessee, 
and  commanded  his  corps  in  the  Battles  of  Franklin 
and  Nashville.  After  the  retreat  from  Nashville  and 
retirement  of  General  Hood,  General  Stewart  com- 
manded the  Army  of  Tennessee,  which  fought  the 
Battle  of  Cole's  Farm. 

Brigadier-General  George  H.  Steuart  was  a  native 
of  Maryland,  born  at  Baltimore  in  1828.  On  graduat- 
ing from  the  United  States  Military  Academy,  he  was 
commissioned  Second  Lieutenant  in  1848.  He  thetl 
served  on  frontier  duty,  and  on  the  march  through 
Texas,  184S-49.  He  served  in  the  Cheyenne  Expedi- 
tion, 1856,  and  the  Utah  Expedition,  1858.  On  the 
outbreak  of  the  Civil  War  in  1861,  he  resigned  his 
commission  and  joined  the  Confederate  Army,  in 
which  he  was  commissioned  Lieutenant-Colonel  in 
June,  and  promoted  Colonel  in  July  of  the  same  year. 
He  was  made  Brigadier-General  in  March,  1862.  Gen- 
eral Steuart  led  the  Cavalry  with  General  Jackson  in 
the  advance  upon  General  Banks  in  Ma}-,  1862,  and 
was  subsequently  in  command  of  an  Infantry  Brigade. 
He  was  wounded  at  Cross  Keys,  Virginia,  in  May, 
1862,  participated  in  the  attack  on  Culpi's  Hill,  Gettys- 
burgh,  July,  1863,  and  occupied  the  right  parallel  of 
the  Confederate  center,  known  as  the  "Bloody  Angle", 
at  the  Battle  of  the  Wilderness  in  1864.  After  being 
taken  prisoner  and  exchanged  he  took  part  in  the 
Battles  of  Spotsylvania  and  Five  Forks. 


jHE  Atlantic  coast  line  of  America  became 
by  degrees  well  occupied  by  the  colonists, 
and  in  the  eighteenth  century  the  move- 
ment of  the  settlers  from  the  seaboard 
regions  into  the  interior  became  more  pronounced. 
Further,  in  order  to  obtain  lands  for  themselves,  we 
find  many  of  the  family  name  who  arrived  in  the  col- 
onies during  this  period  settled  inland,  or  on  the 
frontier,  taking  up  lands  in  the  interior  of  Pennsyl- 
vania, New  Hampshire,  Vermont  and  Maine,  or 
crossed  the  mountains  into  Ohio,  Kentucky  and  Ten- 
nessee, joining  the  company  of  virile,  tenacious  and 
aggressive  frontiersmen,  who  with  axe  and  plow  were 
fighting  the  unceasing  contest  between  civilization  and 
the  rude  wilderness  of  the  virgin  land.  With  others 
of  their  race — Highlanders,  Lowlanders  and  Ulster- 
men — they  were  the  true  pioneers  of  the  onward  move- 
ment; the  long  discipline  and  warlike  spirit  of  the 
clan  fearing  neither  Indian  nor  the  difificulties  of  the 
path,  as  they  pitched  their  tents  deep  into  the  bosom 
of  the  undeveloped  country,  and  thrust  the  outer 
bulwark  further  and  further  into  the  great  land  of 
the  West. 

These  hardy  pioneers  of  the  name  left  the  indelible 
impress  of  their  character  upon  the  succeeding  genera- 
tions of  the  family,  who  have,  in  more  peaceful  times 
and  amid  milder  institutions,  taken  part  in  the  stren- 
uous movements  of  American  life,  and  in  each  State 
and  Territory  of  the  Union  filled  high  pbsitions  of 
honor  and  trust  in  every  branch  of  politics,  letters 
art  and  industry. 


f02    History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family 

Five  members  of  the  family  have  been  Governors  of 

Robert  Marcellus  Stewart  was  twelfth  Governor  of 
Missouri  from  1857  ^o  1861.  He  was  born  at  Trux- 
lon,  New  York,  on  12th  March,  181 5.  After  being 
admitted  to  the  bar,  he  went,  in  1838,  to  Buchanan 
County,  Missouri,  and  on  the  resignation  of  Governor 
Polk  in  1857,  was  elected  Governor  after  the  closest 
contest  ever  known  in  the  State.  He  died  at  St. 
Joseph,  Missouri  in  1871. 

The  next  member  of  the  family  to  be  elected  to  the 
office  of  Governor  was  John  W.  Stewart,  who  was 
Governor  of  the  State  of  Vermont  for  the  term  1870 
to  1872.  He  was  a  native  of  the  State,  having  been 
born  at  Middlebury. 

Edwin  S.  Stuart  was  Governor  of  Pennsylvania 
from  1907  until  191 1.  He  was  born  at  Philadelphia 
in  1853. 

The  present  Governor  of  Montana,  Samuel  Vernon 
Stewart,  was  born  in  Monroe  County,  Ohio,  in  1872. 
He  was  elected  in  1913,  and  has  since  been  elected  for 
a  second  term,  1917  to  1921. 

Henry  C.  Stuart  was  Governor  of  Virginia  from  1914 
to  1918.  He  was  born  at  Wytheville,  Virginia,  in  1855, 
and  is  descended  from  Archibald  Stuart  who  came 
to  this  country  in  1726.  General  J.  E.  B.  Stuart,  the 
celebrated  Confederate  cavalry  leader  was  of  the  same 

The  family  has  been  represented  in  both  Houses 
of  Congress. 

David  Stewart,  born  at  Baltimore  in  1800,  was 
United  States  Senator  from  Maryland  to  the  31st 

After  serving  as  member  of  the  House  of  Represen- 
tatives in  the  30th  to  32nd  Congresses  Charles  E.  Stuart 

History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family     103 

was  United  States  Senator  from  Michigan  to  the  33rd 
to  35th  Congresses. 

William  M.  Stewart  served  in  fifteen  Congresses 
as  Senator  from  Nevada,  namely  in  the  38th  to  43rd 
and  in  the  50th  to  58th  Congresses.  A  native  of  New 
York  State,  he  moved  to  Virginia  City,  Nevada,  in 

In  the  Continental  Congress,  1784-85,  the  family 
was  represented  by  Archibald  Stewart  as  Delegate 
from  New  Jersey. 

The  following  have  served  as  Members  of  the  House 
of  Representatives : 

John  Stewart,  from  Pennsylvania,  to  the  6th,  7th 
and  8th  Congresses;  Philip  Stuart,  from  Maryland,  to 
the  I2th  to  15th  Congresses;  James  Stewart,  from 
North  Carolina,  to  the  15th  Congress;  Andrew  Stew- 
art, from  Pennsylvania,  to  the  17th  to  20th,  22nd  and 
23rd,  and  28th  to  30th  Congresses ;  Archibald  Stuart, 
from  Virginia,  to  the  25th  Congress ;  John  T.  Stuart, 
from  Illinois,  to  the  26th,  27th  and  38th  Congresses; 
Alexander  H.  H.  Stuart,  from  Virginia,  to  the  27th 
Congress,  and  also  Secretary  of  the  Interior  from  1850 
to  1S53 ;  John  Stewart,  from  Connecticut,  to  the  28th 
Congress ;  Charles  E.  Stuart,  from  Michigan,  to  the 
30th  and  32nd  Congresses ;  Andrew  Stuart,  from  Ohio, 
to  the  33rd  Congress ;  David  Stuart,  from  Michigan, 
to  the  33rd  Congress ;  James  A.  Stewart,  from  Mary- 
land, to  the  34th  to  36th  Congresses ;  William  Stewart, 
from  Penns  Ivania,  to  the  35th  and  36th  Congresses; 
Thomas  E.  Stewart,  from  New  York,  to  the  40th  Con- 
gress;  Jacob  H.  Stewart,  from  Minnesota,  to  the  45th 
Congress ;  Charles  Stewart,  from  Texas,  to  the  48th 
to  52nd  Congresses ;  John  W.  Stewart,  from  Vermont, 
to  the  48th  to  51st  Congresses,  and  Governor  of  the 
State;  John  D.  Stewart,  from  Georgia,  to  the  50th  and 

104    History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family 

51st  Congresses;  Andrew  Stewart,  from  Pennsylvania, 
to  the  52nd  Congress;  Alexander  Stewart,  from  Wis- 
consin, to  the  54th  and  55th  Congresses;  James  F. 
Stewart,  from  New  Jersey,  to  the  54th  to  57th  Con- 
gresses; and  John  K,  Stewart,  from  New  York,  to 
the  56th  and  57th  Congresses. 

Connected  with  the  66th  Congress,  now  in  session, 
are  the  names  of  Charles  W.  Stewart,  Supterintendent, 
Office  of  Naval  Records  and  Library,  Author;  of  "The 
Mississippi  River,"  "St.  Louis  to  the  Sea,"  "The  Stars 
and  Stripes";  William  M.  Steuart,  Secretary  of  the 
U.  S.  Tariff  Commission;  Charles  A.  Stewart, 
Chief  Clerk,  office  of  the  Controller  of  the  Currency ; 
Charles  E.  Stewart,  Chief  Clerk,  Department  of  Jus- 
tice; George  C.  Stewart,  Receiving  Clerk,  General 
Land  Office;  Joseph  Stewart,  Special  Assistant  to  thtf 
Attorney  General,  Post  Office  Department. 

The  story  of  the  romantic  journey  of  Robert  Stuart, 
one  of  the  early  explorers,  is  told  in  Washington 
Irving's  "Astoria".  Stuart  was  a  native  of  Callender, 
Scotland  and  came  to  this  country  in  1807.  In  1810 
he  went  out  as  one  of  the  founders  of  Astoria,  Oregon, 
and  when  it  became  necessary  to  communicate  with 
the  Atlantic  Coast,  he  set  out,  in  June,  1812,  with  five 
men  across  the  continent,  reaching  St.  Louis  after 
eleven  months  of  travel  and  adventure.  Later,  as  Com- 
missioner for  the  Indians,  his  consideration  and  kind- 
ness earned  him  the  title  of  "The  friend  of  the  Indian." 
His  son,  David,  is  mentioned  as  Brigadier-General 
in  the  Civil  War. 

Another  Pioneer  of  the  West,  Granville  Stuart,  born 
near  Clarksburg,  Virginia,  in  1834,  went  overland  to 
California  in  1852,  returning  east  on  horseback  in 
1857.  He  again  went  into  the  Rocky  Mountains,  with 
his  brother  James,  pirospecting  for  gold  mines,  and  for 

History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family     105 

forty  years  was  a  hunter,  miner  and  stockraiser.  From 
1894  to  1898,  he  was  United  States  Minister  to  Uru- 
guay and  Paraguay. 

The  first  of  the  merchant  princes  of  the  country, 
Alexander  Turney  Stewart,  was  born,  of  Scottish 
descent,  at  Lisburne,  Ireland,  in  1803,  and  emigrated 
to  New  York  in  1823.  His  father  was  a  native  of  Scot- 
land who  settled  in  the  North  of  Ireland.  After  com- 
ing to  New  York,  Alexander  T.  Stewart  was  for  a  time 
tutor  in  a  school,  but  with  a  small  legacy  received 
from  his  grandfather  started  in  the  dry  goods  business. 
In  1848,  he  purchased  the  property  at  Broadway  and 
Chambers  Street,  New  York,  and  erected  the  marble 
building  for  many  years  celebrated  as  the  finest  dry 
goods  store  in  the  United  States.  In  1862,  the  great 
building  at  loth  Street  and  Broadway  was  completed, 
and  he  opened  branches  in  different  countries,  and 
numerous  mills.  He  became  a  multi-millionaire.  He 
died  in  New  York  on  the  loth  April,  1876.  His  wife 
erected  the  Protestant  Episcopal  Cathedral  at  Garden 
City,  Long  Island,  in  his  memory. 

Two  brothers,  Robert  L.  Stuart  and  Alexander 
Stuart,  sons  of  Kimloch  Stuart  of  Edinburgh  who 
came  to  this  country  in  1805,  were  successful  mer- 
chants and  generous  p'hilanthropists.  Robert  L.  was 
born  in  1806,  and  Alexander  in  1810,  both  in  New 
York  City.  Carrying  on  their  father's  business,  they 
were  the  first  successful  users,  in  this  country,  of  the 
process  of  refining  sugar  by  steam.  The  charitable 
donations  of  the  two  brothers  amounted  to  millions 
of  dollars.  Robert  L.  died  in  1882  and  Alexander  in 
1879.  Mary,  the  widow  of  Robert  L.  made  generous 
use  of  her  husband's  fortune,  being  one  of  the  most 
philanthropic  women  New  York  has  even  known. 
Stuart  Hall  and  the  Stuart  Professorship  are  at  Prince- 

106    History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family 

ton  University,  and  the  "Robert  L.  Stuart"  collec- 
tion of  rare  books,  prints  and  manuscripts  in  the  New 
York  Public  Library  is  a  memorial  of  her  late  hus- 
band.   Mrs  Stuart  died  in  1891. 

Alvan  Stewart,  the  reformer,  was  born  at  South 
Granville,  New  York  in  1790.  He  devoted  the  greater 
part  of  his  life  to  the  temperance  and  anti-slavery 
causes,  and  died  in  1849. 

Members  of  the  family  have  from  early  days  been 
prominent  in  the  educational  work  of  the  country, 
among  those  notable  being: 

Moses  Stuart  was  born  at  Wilton,  Connecticut,  in 
1780,  and  graduated  at  Yale  in  1799.  He  was  ordained 
as  successor  of  Dr.  Dana  over  the  Central  Church, 
New  Haven,  in  1806,  but,  in  1810,  removed  to  An- 
dover  as  Professor  of  Sacred  Literature,  where  he 
passed  the  remainder  of  his  life.  He  was  a  preacher 
for  forty-seven  years,  and  a  teacher  for  forty-one. 
Among  Professor  Stuart's  writings  are  "Commentaries 
on  Hebrews",  many  theological  works,  and  a  Hebrew 
Grammar.  He  died  in  1852.  His  son,  Isaac  William 
Stuart,  born  1809,  was  Professor  of  Greek  and  Latin  in 
the  College  of  South  Carolina,  and  the  author  of  a 
"Life  of  Nathan  Hale"  and  "Hartford  in  the  Olden 

Philo  P.  Stewart,  founder  of  Oberlin  College,  was 
born  at  Sherman,  Connecticut,  in  1798.  At  the  age  of 
thirty-three  he  became  a  missionary  to  the  Choctaw 
Indians.  In  1832,  he  joined  the  Rev.  J.  J.  Shipherd  at 
Elyria,  and  the  result  of  their  endeavors,  is  Oberlin 
College.  Nearly  fifty  years  later,  in  1880,  the  boarding 
Hall  was  named  "Stewart  Hall"  in  memory  of  its 
founder,  who  died  in  1868. 

Dr.  Richard  S.  Steuart,  born  at  Baltimore  in  1797, 
was,  in  1828,  elected  President  of  the  Marvland  Hos- 

History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family     107 

pital  for  the  Insane,  and  was  one  of  the  most  noted 
alienists  of  his  time. 

The  Reverend  Robert  Stewart,  D.D.  was  born  at 
Sidney,  Ohio,  in  1839,  and  ordained  in  the  United 
Presbyterian  Ministry  in  1866.  He  became  Theolog- 
ical Professor  in  1881  and  Principal  of  the  Theological 
Seminary  of  the  Punjab,  India. 

Born  at  Glasgow,  Scotland,  in  1853,  Reverend 
Charles  M.  Stuart,  D.D.  was  ordained  in  the  Metho- 
dist Ep'iscopal  Ministry  in  1880.  In  191 1,  Dr.  Stuart 
was  elected  President  of  Garrett  Biblical  Institute, 
Evanston,  Illinois.  He  published,  "The  Manifold  Mes- 
sage of  the  Bible" ;  "Story  of  the  Masterpieces",  and 
other  theological  works. 

George  N.  Stewart,  Professor  of  Experimental  Medi- 
cine, Western  Reserve  University,  was  born  at  Lon- 
don, Canada,  in  i860. 

Joseph  S.  S.  Stewart,  Professor  of  Secondary  Educa- 
tion, University  of  Georgia,  was  born  at  Oxford, 
Georgia,  1863. 

Dr.  George  D.  Stewart,  born  Malagash,  Cumberland, 
N.  S.,  1862,  was  appointed  Professor  of  Anatomy  at 
Bellevue  Plospital,  New  York,  and  is  part  author  of 
the  Gerrish  Text  Book  of  Anatomy. 

Oscar  M.  Stewart,  Assistant  Professor  of  Physics, 
University  of  Missouri,  was  born  at  Niosho,  Missouri 
in  1869. 

Professor  Duane  R.  Stuart  was  born  at  Oneida,  Illi- 
nois. He  was  appointed  Professor  of  Classics,  Prince- 
ton University  in  1907  and  is  the  author  of  "The 
Germania  of  Tacitus"'  and  other  works. 

Henry  W.  Stuart,  born  at  Oakland,  California,  was, 
in  1909,  appointed  Professor  of  Philosophy  at  Leland 
Stanford,  Jr.  University. 

Colin  Campbell  Stewart,  born  at  Owen  Sound,  On- 

108    History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family 

tario,  in  1873  became  Professor  of  Physiology,  Dart- 
mouth College. 

George  W.  Stewart,  Professor  of  Physics,  State 
University  of  Iowa,  was  born  at  St.  Louis,  in  1876. 

Cora  Wilson  Stewart,  Founder  of  Moonlight 
Schools,  was  born  at  Farmers,  Kentucky  in  1875,  and 
is  author  of  the  Bill  creating  the  first  Illiteracy  Com- 
mission. She  has  written  several  works  on  educational 

William  Rhinelander  Stewart  has  taken  a  promin- 
ent part  in  the  establishment  of  the  New  York  State 
Agricultural  and  Industrial  School  for  boys,  the  New 
York  Training  School  for  boys  and  other  educational 
work.     He  was  born  in  New  York  City  in   1852. 

"A  good  book  may  be  as  great  a  thing  as  a  battle," 
said  Disraeli.  In  addition  to  those  already  mentioned, 
a  goodly  number  of  members  of  the  family  have  made 
a  noteworthy  contribution  to  American  literature  and 

Ruth  McEnery  Stuart,  author  of  "George  Wash- 
ington Jones" ;  "Sonny" ;  "A  Golden  Wedding"  ;  "The 
Haunted  Photograph";  "Holly  and  Pizen";  "The 
Cocoon" ;  and  many  stories  of  Southern  life,  was  born 
at  Avoyelles  Parish,  Louisiana,  in  i860,  and  died  in 

Charles  D.  Stewart,  of  Chicago,  wrote  "The  Fugitive 
Blacksmith";  "Partners  of  Providence";  "Finerty  of 
the  Sandhouse",  and  other  similar  books. 

Mary  Allan  Stuart,  author  of,  "The  Long  Pack"; 
"Reformation  of  Peggy  Paydie" ;  "The  Land  of  Prom- 
ise", was  born  at  New  Haven,  Connecticut,  in  1881, 

John  A.  Steuart  is  author  of  "In  the  Day  of  Battle" ; 
"Kilgroom";  "The  Minister  of  State";  "Wine  in  the 

History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family     109 

Hester  Stuart  is  author  of  "A  Modern  Jacob",  and 
other  works  of  fiction. 

Leonard  Stuart,  wrote  "The  Cosmic  Comedy";  and 
"The  Great  God  Pan." 

Eleanor  Stuart,  born  at  Orange,  New  Jersey,  in 
1876,  is  author  of  "Stone  Pastures";  "Romance  of 
AH" ;  "Averages" ;  "The  Deeper  Diagnosis" ;  and  many 
serial  magazine  stories. 

Mary  Stewart,  author  of  "Once  Upon  a  Time  Tales." 

Anna  Bird  Stewart,  wrote  "A  Midsummer  Dance 
Dream",  a  comedy  in  one  act;  Poems;  and  "Illusive 

Caroline  Taylor  Stewart,  is  author  of  "The  Origin 
of  the  Were  Wolf  Superstition",  and  modern  lan- 
guage books. 

Jane  Agnes  Stewart,  born  at  Boston,  published 
"The  Frances  Willard  Book" ;  "The  Christmas  Book" ; 
also  Editor  of  the  American  Sunday  School  Union, 
and  Editorial  writer. 

Charles  B.  Stuart  is  author  of  "Lives  and  Works 
of  Civil  and  Military  Engineers  of  America" ;  and 
"Naval  Dry  Docks  of  the  United  States." 

Thomas  Milton  Stewart,  author  of  "Ancient  Sym- 
bolic Temples" ;  "Temple  Symbolism  of  Egypt" ; 
"Temp>le  Teachings  of  India";  was  born  at  Cincin- 
nati in  1866. 

Addison  A.  Stuart  is  author  of  "Iowa  Colonels  and 

William  Henry  Stewart  is  author  of  "A  Pair  of 
Blankets  Wartime  History  in  Letters." 

Rev.  George  C.  Stewart,  D.D.,  was  born  at  Sagi- 
naw, Michigan,  in  1879.  He  was  first  ordained  in 
the  Methodist  Episcopal  Church,  in  1900,  but,  in 
1903,  was  ordained  priest  in  the  Protestant  Episcopal 
Church,  and  acted  as  Secretary  of  the  War  Commis- 

110    History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family 

sion  of  the  latter  Church.  He  is  author  of  "Why 
Baptize  Babies" ;  "The  Colours  of  the  Republic",  and 
many  contributions  to  Church  Magazines. 

Charles  M.  Stuart  published  "The  Manifold  Mes- 
sage of  the   Gospel";   "Charles  Joseph    Little". 

George  Stuart  was  born  at  Saratoga,  New  York, 
about  1834,  and  published,  with  Professor  Chase,  the 
"Chase  and  Stuart  Classical  Series"  of  elementary 
Latin  books.  Also  School  editions  of  "Caesar's  Gallic 
War" ;  "Cicero's  Select  Orations" ;  and  works  of  Sal- 
lust,  Tacitus,  Cornelius  Nepos,  Virgil  and  Ovid. 

Judd  Stewart  was  born  at  Lawrence,  Kansas,  in 
1867,  and  is  author  of  Pamphlets  on  Abraham  Lincoln. 
His  collection  of  Lincolniana  is  the  most  complete 
in  existence. 

A  memoir  of  Gilbert  Stuart  the  famous  portrait 
painter  is  contained  in  Chapter  V. 

James  Everett  Stuart,  Landscape  Painter,  was  born 
in  Maine,  in  1852,  and  discovered  a  process  of  paint- 
ing upon  aluminum.  He  was  awarded  a  Medal  by 
the  American  Art  Society  of  Philadelphia  for  his 
painting  of  Mt.  Hood. 

Julius  L.  Stewart,  artist,  was  born  at  Philadelphia 
in  1855  and  awarded  Medals  at  Antwerp,  Berlin  and 
Paris,  being  made  officer  of  the  Legion  d'Honneur, 
190 1. 

Humphrey  John  Stewart,  Musician  and  Composer, 
was  born  at  London,  England,  in  1856.  His  compo- 
sitions include,  "His  Majesty",  comic  opera;  "The 
Conspirators",  comic  opera ;  "Montezuma",  orchestral 
suite ;  "The  Nativity",  oratorio ;  "King  Hal",  romantic 
opera;  Mass  in  G;  and  numerous  songs,  pianoforte 
and  violin  pieces,  and  Church  music. 

William  Stuart,  Theatrical  Manager  and  Journalist, 
was  born  in  Galway,  Ireland,  1821.    He  was  educated 

History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family     111 

at  Eton,  became  interested  in  Irish  politics,  and  was 
elected  to  Parliament.  In  1852,  he  was  appointed 
Commissioner  of  the  Income  Tax,  but  two  years  later, 
becoming-  pecuniarily  embarrassed  by  election  ex- 
penses, and  losses  on  the  Turf,  he  made  his  way  to 
Paris  and  thence  to  New  York,  where  he  gained  a 
reputation  as  dramatic  critic.  He  became  a  theatrical 
manager  in  Washington  and  Philadelphia,  and  then 
lessee  of  the  Winter  Garden  Theatre  in  New  York 
City,  where  Booth,  Boucicault  and  Agnes  Robertson 
were  introduced  to  the  public.  After  the  burning  of 
the  Winter  Garden,  in  1867,  he  was  associated  with 
Lester  Wallack,  and  died  in  New  York,  in  1886, 

Anita  Stewart,  the  Motion  Picture  star,  claimed  that 
$10,000  was  the  minimum  weekly  salary  to  which  she 
was  entitled. 

A  remarkable  member  of  the  family,  Zuriah  Stew- 
art, widow  of  David  Stewart,  died  at  Kingwood,  New 
Jersey,  in  1843,  aged  one  hundred  and  three.  By  her 
first  husband,  named  Opdycke,  she  had  eleven  chil- 
dren. She  left  84  grand  children,  180  great  grand- 
children, and  39  great-great-grandchildren. 


ANY  titles  of  nobility  have  at  different 
periods  of  British  history,  been  held  by 
members  of  the  family,  and  at  the  present 
time  six  peers  bear  the  family  name. 

The  head  of  the  noble  house  of  Galloway,  Randolph 
Henry  Stewart,  nth  Earl  of  Galloway,  loth  Baronet 
of  Corsewell  and  8th  of  Burray,  was  born  in  1836, 
and  succeeded  to  the  title  in  1901.  The  heir  to  the 
Earldom  bears  the  courtesy  title  of  Lord  Garlics,  and 
the  principal  family  seats  are  Cumloden,  Wigtown- 
shire, and  Glen  Trool  Lodge  and  Garlics  Lodge,  Kirk- 

The  present  Earl  of  Moray  is  Morton  Gray  Stuart, 
17th  Earl,  who  is  also  Lord  Abernethy,  Strathearn, 
Doune,  and  St.  Colme,  and  Baron  Stuart  of  Castle 
Stuart.  He  was  born  in  1855,  and  succeeded  in  1909. 
There  have  been  repeated  Earldoms  of  Moray,  some 
from  Celtic  times.  The  first  Earl  of  the  present  series 
was  a  son  of  James  V,  James  Stewart,  Prior  of  St. 
Andrews,  Regent  of  Scotland,  who  was  assassinated 
in  1570.  His  daughter  married  the  2nd  Lord  Doune, 
and  tlie  husband  became  2nd  Earl  of  Moray  in 
right  of  his  wife.  The  first  Lord  Doune  was  Sir  James 
Stewart  of  Doune.  The  principal  family  seats  are, 
Darnaway  Castle,  Elginshire ;  Castle  Stuart,  Inverness- 
shire;  and  Doune  Lodge,  Perthshire. 

The  present  Earl  Castle  Stewart  is  Andrew  John 
Stuart,  6th  Earl  and  12th  Baronet.  He  is  also  Vis- 
count Castle  Stuart  and  Baron  Castle  Stuart,  and  was 
born  in   1841,  succeeding  to  the  title  in   1914.     The 

History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family    113 

ancestor  of  the  family,  Andrew,  son  of  Sir  Walter 
Stewart  who  was  beheaded  with  his  father,  the  Duke 
of  Albany,  in  1425,  was  created  Lord  Avandale  by 
James  II,  in  1456.  The  family  seat  is  Stuart  Hall, 
Stewartstown,  County  Tyrone. 

The  4th  and  present  Marquess  of  Bute  is  John 
Crichton-Stuart,  who  also  holds  the  titles  of  Earl  of 
Windsor,  Viscount  Mountjoy,  Baron  Stuart,  Baron 
Cardiff,  Earl  of  Dumfries,  Viscount  Air,  Lord  Crich- 
ton  of  Sanquhar,  Earl  of  Bute,  Viscount  King-arth, 
Lord  Mount  Stuart,  Cumrae  and  Inchmarnock.  He 
is  also  Hereditary  Keeper  of  Rothesay  Castle  and 
Hereditary  Sheriff  of  Bute.  He  was  born  in  1881, 
and  succeeded  in  1900.  The  founder  of  this  lamily 
was  John  Steuart,  a  son  of  King  Robert  II,  who,  about 
1385,  was  made  Hereditary  High  Sheriff  of  Bute.  In 
1702,  Sir  James  Stuart  was  created  first  Earl  of  Bute, 
the  4th  Earl  being  made  Marquess  in  1796.  The  fam- 
ily seats  are,  Mount  Stuart,  Rothesay ;  Kames  Castle, 
Isle  of  Bute ;  Cardiff  Castle ;  Dumfries  House,  and  Old 
Place  of  Mochrum. 

The  head  of  the  noble  house  of  Londonderry  is 
Charles  Stewart  Henry  Vane-Tempest-Stewart,  P.  C. ; 
M.  V.  O.;  7th  Marquess  of  Londonderry,  Earl  of 
Londonderry,  Viscount  Castlereagh,  Baron  London- 
derry, Earl  Vane,  Viscount  Seaham  and  Baron  Stew- 
art. He  was  born  in  1878,  and  succeeded  to  the  title 
in  191 5.  The  heir  to  the  Marquessate  bears  the  cour- 
tesy title  of  Viscount  Castlereagh ;  and  the  family 
seats  are,  Wynyard  Park,  Durham  ;  Seaham  Hall,  Dur- 
ham ;  Springfield,  Oakham ;  and  Mount  Stewart,  Coun- 
ty Down. 

Charles  Beilby  Stuart-Wortley  was,  in  1917,  created 
1st  Baron  Stuart  of  Wortley. 

Many  of  the  ancient  branches  of  the  family  are  now 

114    History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family 

extinct,  but  among  those  still  existing  the  foUovvmg 
may   be   mentioned. 

The  ancient  Clan  Appin  and  the  faniil  •  of  Ardsheal 
are  now  represented  by  Robert  Bruce  Stewart,  who 
was  born  in  1863,  and  succeeded  his  father  in  1890. 
He  is  therefore  the  present  head  of  Appin,  Ardsheal 
and  the  Stewarts  of  Lorn. 

The  head  of  the  family  of  Steuart  of  Ballechin  is 
John  Malcolm  Steuart  Steuart  who  was  born  in  1863. 
The  family  seats  are  Ballechin,  Ballinluig  and  Inver 

William  Stewart,  born  in  1859,  is  the  present  repre- 
sentative of  the  ancient  family  of  Ardvoirlich,  and  the 
ancestral  seat  is  Ardvoirlich  Lochearnhead,  Perthshire. 

The  head  of  the  branch  of  Auchlunkart  and  Tan- 
achie  is  William  Francis  Day  Steuart,  born  1858.  cf 
Auchlunkart,  Banffshire. 

Alexander  Kenneth  Stewart,  12th  of  Achnacone  was 
born  in  1852  and  succeeded  his  brother.  Achnaconp 
the  family  seat  is  in  Appdn,  Arg-  llshire. 

The  ancient  famib-  of  Castlemilk  is  now  represented 
by  William  James  Crawfurd  Stirling-Stuart  who  was 
born  in  1854.  The  ancestral  seat  is  Castlemilk,  Ruth- 
erglen,  Glasgow. 

Fifth  Baronet  and  head  of  the  branch  of  Allanton, 
Sir  Douglas  Archibald  Seton-Steuart  was  born  in  1857, 
and  succeeded  his  brother  in  191 3.  The  head  of  the 
family  is  Hereditary  Armour  Bearer  and  Squire  of 
the  Royal  Bodv  in  Scotland.  The  famil-  seats  are 
Touch,    Stirling,    and    Allanton    House    Lanarkshire. 

The  head  of  the  family  of  Greenock  and  Blackball 
is  now  Sir  Michael  Hugh  Shaw-Stewart,  8th  Baronet, 
and  the  familv  seat  is  Ardgowan,  Stirling. 

Sir  Harry  Jocehn  Urquhart  Stewart  is  the  nth 
Baronet  of  Fort  Stewart,  County  Donegal.    Sir  Harry 

History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family    115 

is  a  large  landowner,  owning  14,000  acres  of  land. 
He  was  born  in  1871. 

Brigadier-General  Sir  Hugh  Houghton  Stewart,  4th 
Baronet  of  Athenry,  County  Tyrone,  was  born  in  1858, 
and  succeeded  his  father  in  1905.  Ballygawley  Park 
and  I.ough  Macroy  Lodge  are  the  family  seats. 

Sir  Simeon  Henry  Lechmere  Stuart,  7th  Baronet 
of  Hartley  Mauduit,  Hants,  was  born  in  1864. 

Sir  James  Stuart-Menteth,  3rd  Baronet  of  Close- 
burn  was  born  in  1841,  and  is  a  naturalized  American, 
residing  at  Canandaigua,  New  York. 

Sir  Mark  John  MacTaggart  Stewart  was  created 
1st  Baronet  of  South  wick,  Kirkcudbrightshire,  in  1893* 
He  was  born  in  1834,  and  his  landed  properties  ex- 
tend over  18,000  acres. 

Sir  Norman  Robert  Stewart,  C.  B.,  2nd  Baronet, 
was  born  in  185 1. 

The  enumeration  of  all  the  Stewarts,  Stuarts  and 
SteUfirts  whose  names  have  loomed  large  in  the  life 
and  history  of  the  British  Empire  would  alone  tax 
the  capacity  of  a  bulky  volume,  and  it  must,  there- 
fore, suffice  to  briefl  '  mention  a  few  notable  names. 

A  romantic  and  historicallv  interesting  figure.  Lady 
ArabeHn  Stuart,  daughter  of  Charles,  Earl  of  Lennox, 
was  born  in  1575.  She  was  next  in  succession  to 
James  VI  to  the  thrones  of  England  and  Scotland^ 
after  Queen  EHzabeth.  Her  father's  mother  was  Mar- 
garet Douglas,  daughter  of  Henry  VH  of  England's 
daughter,  Queen  Margaret  of  Scotland,  and  the  Earl 
of  Angus.  During  the  reign  of  Elizabeth,  Lady  Ara- 
bella Stuart  was  the  centre  of  the  intrigues  of  those 
who  ODposed  the  succession  of  James  VI,  and  numer- 
ous suitors  contended  for  her  hand.  On  the  accession 
of  James  VI  to  the  English  throne  she  was  received 
at  Court,  but  her  marriage  against  the  express  order 

116    History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family 

of  the  King,  to  William  Seymour  a  grandson  of  Lord 
Hertford,  lost  her  his  favor,  and  after  numerous  ad- 
ventures and  escapes  she  was  imprisoned  in  the 
Tower  of  London,  where  she  spent  the  remainder  of 
her  unhappy  career.  On  her  death,  in  1615,  she  was 
buried  in  the  tomb  of  Mary,  Queen  of  Scots,  in  West- 
minster Abbey. 

Viscount  Castlereagh,  Robert  Stewart,  later  second 
Marquess  of  Londonderry,  was  the  son  of  the  first 
Marquess,  and  was  born  in  1769.  In  1794,  he  entered 
the  British  House  of  Commons,  and,  in  1798,  was 
chosen  Secretary  to  the  Lord  Lieutenant  of  Ireland. 
The  suppression  of  the  Irish  rebellion  of  that  year  was, 
in  a  great  measure,  due  to  the  steps  taken  by  him, 
and  the  Union  of  Ireland  with  Great  Britain  was 
passed  by  the  Irish  Parliament,  "chiefly  through  the 
powerful  abilities  of  Lord  Castlereagh."  In  1805,  he 
became  Secretary  of  State  for  War,  and  the  failure  of 
the  Walcheren  Expedition,  in  1809,  exposed  him  to 
censure,  occasioning  the  duel  between  him  and  Can- 
ning, his  colleague  in  the  ministry.  The  duel  took 
place  on  Putney  Heath,  Canning  being  wounded  in 
the  thigh.  In  1812,  Lord  Castlereagh  became  Secre- 
tary of  State  for  Foreign  Affairs,  and  represented 
Great  Britain  at  the  Peace  of  Paris,  and  the  Congress 
of  Vienna,  in  1814.  On  the  death  of  his  father,  in 
182 1,  he  succeeded  to  the  Marquessate  of  London- 
derry. His  mind  became  aflFected,  and  he  committed 
suicide  in  August,  1822.  He  was  buried  in  West- 
minster Abbey  between  the  graves  of  Pitt  and  Fox. 

Admiral  of  the  Fleet,  Sir  Houston  Stewart,  third 
son  of  Sir  Michael  Shaw  Stewart  of  Ardgowan,  was 
born  in  1791,  and  entered  the  Navy  in  1805.  He  served 
at  the  reduction  of  Acre  in  1840,  and  at  Kinburn, 
Black  Sea,  in  1855.    He  was  Commander  in  Chief  on 

History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family    117 

the  North  American  Station,  1856-1860,  and  at  Devon- 
port,  1860-1863.  Appointed  Admiral  of  the  Fleet,  on 
20th  October,  1872,  he  died  on  loth  December,  1875. 

Sir  Henry  Seton-Steuart,  of  AUanton,  author  of 
"The  Planter's  Guide",  was  born  in  1759.  In  early 
life  he  served  as  an  officer  in  the  army,  but  retired  in 
1787.  Experiments  in  arboriculture  became  the  chief 
interest  of  his  life.  In  September  1823,  Sir  Walter 
Scott,  Lord  Belhaven  and  others  visited  Allanton,  and 
reported  on  the  improvements  effected  there  by  Steu- 
art's  system  of  transplanting  large  trees.  He  published 
"The  Planter's  Guide"  in  1828.  His  methods  of  trans- 
planting were  tried  with  great  success  on  estates  in 
the  United  Kingdom,  and  he  was  created  a  Baronet 
in  1814.    He  died  on  the  4th  of  March,  1836. 

"Walking  Stewart"  was  the  descriptive  name  given 
to  an  eccentric  member  of  the  family.  John  Stewart 
was  born  in  London  in  1749,  and  was'  sent  to  Harrow 
School,  where  he  broke  all  rules  and  refused  all  lessons. 
He  went  to  India,  and  became  interpreter  to  Hyder 
Ali,  later  becoming  Prime  Minister  of  the  Nabob  of 
Argot.  Leaving  the  Nabob's  court,  he  walked  through 
Persia,  Ethiopia  and  Abyssinia,  crossed  to  Marseilles, 
and  walked  through  France  and  Spain.  After  visiting 
England,  he  again  walked  from  Calais  to  Vienna,  and 
on  to  Constantinople,  living  entirely  upon  vegetables. 
On  his  return  to  England,  the  East  India  Company 
paid  him  £10,000  in  satisfaction  of  his  claim  against 
the  Nabob  of  Argot,  which  enabled  him  to  give  lux- 
urious banquets  in  "Epicurean  apartments",  brilliantly 
decorated  with  mirrors  and  Chinese  pictures.  Another 
of  his  eccentricities^  was  to  repose  in  a  "trance-like 
reverie  among  the  cows  in  St.  James'  Park."  He  was 
found  dead  in  his  rooms  on  the  morning  of  20th  Feb- 
ruary, 1822.    He  boasted  of  being  "a  man  of  nature," 

118    History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stvurt  Family 

was  a  good  hearted  man,  and  all  his  doctrines  aimed 
at  inducing  men  to  promote  the  happiness  of  the 

John  M'Douall  Stuart,  the  South  Australian  ex- 
plorer, was  born  at  Dysart,  Fife,  Scotland,  in  1818. 
Between  1858  and  1862,  he  made  six  expeditions  into 
the  interior,  and  crossed  the  Island  continent  from 
south  to  north.  Central  Mount-Stuart  is  named  after 

"No  braver  soldier  or  more  brilliant  leader  of  men 
eyer  wore  the  Queen's  uniform."  Such  was  Lord  Wol- 
seley's  report  regarding  Major  General  Sir  Herbert 
Stewart.  He  was  born  in  1843,  ^  great  grandson  of 
the  7th  Earl  of  Galloway.  During  the  Zulu  War  he 
served  as  Brigade  Major  of  Cavalry.  In  1882,  he 
took  part  in  the  Egyptian  campaign  which  followed  the 
rising  of  Arabi  Pasha,  as  Assistant  Adjutant  Gen- 
eral of  the  Cavalry  Division.  After  the  victory  of  Tel- 
eJ-Kebir,  on  13th  September,  1882,  the  cavalry  was 
pushed  on  to  within  a  few  miles  of  Cairo,  largely  owing 
to  Stewart's  energy.  Stewart  sent  for  the  Governor 
of  Cairo,  and  the  same  night  the  citadel  was  occupied. 
He  was  made  C.  B.,  Brevet  Colonel,  and  A.  D.  C.  to 
Queen  Victoria.  In  1884,  he  was  made  K.  C.  B.  for 
siervices  in  command  of  the  cavalry  at  Suakim,  and  was 
chosen  to  lead  the  desert  column  with  the  rank  of 
Brigadier-General.  At  Abu  Klea,  i6th  January,  1885^ 
and  Metemmeh,  the  Zerebas  formed  by  Stewart  with- 
stood overwhelming  Arab  attacks,  but  in  the  latter 
engagement  he  was  wounded,  and  died  on  his  way- 
back  to  Khartoum  on  the  i6th  February.  He  had  been 
promoted  to  Major-General.  There  is  a  monument  to 
Sir  Herbert  in  St.  Paul's  Cathedral,  and  at  Win- 
chester School  a  gateway  into  the  cloisters  from  the 

History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family    119 

school  quadrangle  bearing  his  arms  and  the  school 
arms,  "In  Memoriam  Herberti  Stewart." 

The  old  Scottish  names  have  even  been  foremost 
in  Canadian  history,  and,  in  the  early  development  of 
the  Dominion,  those  bearing  the  family  name  have 
taken  a  distinguished  part. 

The  "Father  of  the  Upper  Canada  Church",  the 
Reverend  John  Stuart,  took  refuge  in  Canada  during 
the  American  War  of  Independence,  as  mentioned  in 
a  previous  chapter.  He  first  settled  at  Cataraqui,  i8o 
miles  from  Montreal.  In  May,  1786,  he  opened  an 
academy  at  Kingston,  and  in  the  summer  of  1788  he 
went  round  his  "parish",  which  was  then  two  hun- 
dred miles  long.  In  1789  he  was  appointed  Bishop's 
Commissary  for  the  district,  afterwards  Canada  West. 
At  the  meeting  of  the  first  session  of  the  Colonial 
Legislature,  in  1792,  he  was  named  Chaplain  to  the 
Upper  House  of  Assembh',  and,  in  1799,  received  the 
appointment  of  Chaplain  to  the  garrison  of  Kingston. 
He  died  in  181 1,  leaving  four  sons  who  became  prom- 
inent in  Canadian  affairs.  His  eldest  son,  George  Okill 
Stuart  was  Archdeacon  of  Kingston ;  John  Stuart  be- 
came Sheriff  of  the  Johnstown  District  of  Upper 
Canada ;  Sir  James  Stuart,  Chief  Justice  of  Lower 
Canada,  was  created  a  Baronet  and  died  at  Quebec 
in  1853  5  ^^<^  Andrew  Stuart  was  Solicitor  General 
of  Lower  Canada. 

The  Hon.  John  Stewart  was  for  sixty-four  years 
a  resident  of  Quebec,  and  filled  many  offices  in  the 
Government  and  commercial  institutions  of  Canada. 
Upon  the  accession  of  Lord  Dalhousie  to  the  Govern- 
ment of  the  Province,  he  was  called  to  a  seat  in  the 
Legislative  and  Executive  Council,  and  was  app^^inted 
sole  Commissioner  of  the  Jesuit  estates.  He  was  also 
President  of  the  Board  of  Trade,  President  of  the  Bank 

120     History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family 

of  Montreal  and  Master  of  the  Trinity  House.     His 
death  occurred  in  1858. 

The  Honorable  and  Right  Reverend  Charles  James 
Stewart,  born  13th  April,  1775,  was  third  son  of  John 
Stewart,  7th  Earl  of  Galloway.  He  graduated  at  Cor- 
pus Christi  Coll.,  Oxford,  in  1795,  and  after  ordination 
was  Rector  of  Overton  Longueville  and  Botolph 
Bridge,  Hunts,  In  1807,  he  took  up  work  in  Canada, 
and  was  appointed  to  the  Mission  of  St.  Armand.  Here 
he  built  a  Church  at  his  own  expense,  and  from  this 
time  devoted  his  life  and  fortune  to  the  work  of  the 
Church  in  Canada.  In  1825,  Dr.  Stewart  was  nomin- 
ated to  the  See  of  Quebec,  and  proceeded  to  Eng- 
land, where,  on  ist  January,  1826,  he  was  consecrated 
Bishop  in  Lambeth  Palace.  He  returned  to  Canada, 
where  he  died  in  1837. 

It  is  not  generally  known  that  the  figure  of  Britan- 
nia which  appears  on  the  British  copper  coinage  is 
that  of  a  member  of  the  family,  Frances  Teresa  Stuart, 
the  court  beauty  and  favorite  of  Charles  II,  known  as 
"La  Belle  Stuart."  She  was  a  grand  daughter  of  the 
first  Lord  Blantyre,  and  was  born  in  1647.  Early  in 
1663  she  became  a  Maid  of  Honour  at  the  English 
Court,  and  Pepys  describes  her  as  the  greatest  beauty 
he  had  ever  seen,  "with  her  hat  cocked  and  a  red 
plume,  sweet  eye,  and  little  Roman  nose,"  but  another 
critic  summarized  her  character,  "It  was  hardly  pos- 
sible for  a  woman  to  have  less  wit,  and  more  beauty." 
She  had  many  aspirants  for  her  hand,  and  the  above 
named  criticism  of  her  character  seems  especially  per- 
tinent, when  we  learn  that  one  of  such  suitors,  An- 
thony Hamilton,  won  temporary  favor  in  her  eyes 
by  holding  two  lighted  tapers  in  his  mouth  longer 
than  any  other  cavalier  could  manage  to  retain  one! 
She  later  became  Duchess  of  Richmond  and  Lennox. 


|Y  symbols  man  is  guided  and  commanded, 
said  Thomas  Carlyle,  and  the  emblems 
used  by  our  forefathers  in  days  gone  by 
are  well  worthy  of  being  remembered. 
From  the  eminent  position  occupied  by  the  family 
and  its  branches,  it  follows,  that  the  Armorial  Bear- 
ings granted  and  confirmed  to  those  bearing  the  name 
are  very  numerous ;  eighty-five  such  Armorial  Bear- 
ings being  recorded  in  the  Lyon  Register  of  Arms 
at  Edinburgh.  Many  are  no  longer  in  use,  and  a  num- 
ber, borne  by  those  of  the  same  line  of  descent,  are 
identical.  The  following  are  of  most  general  interest. 
The  first  Arms  to  be  borne  by  the  family  are  those 
adopted  by  the  High  Stewards  of  Scotland  in  the 
twelfth  century  namely :  Or,  a  fesse  chequy  azure  and 
argent.  The  Arms  therefore  consist  of  an  escutcheon, 
or  shield,  of  a  gold  color,  with  a  fesse,  or  band,  drawn 
horizontally  across  the  centre,  one  third  in  width  of 
the  escutcheon,  the  band  being  chequy,  that  is,  divided 
like  a  chess  board  into  checks  of  different  colors  alter- 
nately, in^  this  case  sky  blue  and  silver.  The  chequy 
alludes  to  the  chequers  of  the  Steward's  Board.  These 
Armorial  Bearings  are  retained  in  the  arms  of  families 
claiming  descent  from  the  High  Stewards.  When 
Robert  Stewart,  the  Lord  High  Steward  of  Scotland, 
ascended  the  throne  as  Robert  II,  he  abandoned  the 
paternal  arms  of  Stewart  for  the  Royal  Arms  of  Scot- 
land. The  Royal  Arms  began  as  the  ptersonal  arms  of 
Alexander  II  (1214-1249),  or  perhaps  of  his  predeces- 
sor, William  the  Lion  (1165-1214).  In  1292,  they  were 


122    History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family 

so  far  identified  with  the  office  of  King  of  Scotland, 

that  John  Baliol  on  succeeding  to  the  throne  placed 

them  on  the  reverse  side  of  his  seal.    Robert  the  Bruce 

on  reaching  the  throne,  placed  them  alone  on  his  seal, 

and  abandoned  the  arms  of  Bruce,  which  course  the 

House   of   Stewart   followed.     The   Royal   Arms    of 

Scotland  are : 

Arms — Or,  a  lion  rampant  armed  and  langued  azure 

within    a    double    tressure,    flory-counterflory    gules, 

encircled     with     the     order     of     St.     Andrew,     the 

same  being  composed  of  rue  and  thistles,  having  the 

image  of  St.  Andrew  with  his  cross  on  his  breast, 

thereto  pendant. 

Supporters — The    Royal    Arms    do    not   appear   with 

even  a  single  supporter  till  the  reign  of  James  I,  (1406- 

1437).     In  that  reign  one  supporter,  a  unicorn  sejant 

appears.     The  two  unicorns  sejant  appeared  in  the 

reign  of  James  III,  (1460-1488). 

Crest — On  the  crown  proper,  a  lion  sejant  affrontee 

gules,  crowned  or,  holding  in  the  dexter  paw  a  sword, 

and  in  the  sinister  a  sceptre  erect  also  proper,  with 

the  motto,  In  Defens. 

Motto — Nemo  me  impune  lacessit. 

The  cry  of  "St.  Andrew"  was  long  the  war  cry  of 
the  Scottish  King  and  his  people. 

"O  for  an  hour  of  Wallace  wight, 
Or  Bruce's  arm  to  rule  the  fight 
And  cry  St.  Andrew  and  our  Right." 

Arms  of  the  Earl  of  Galloway:  Or,  fesse  chequy  ar- 
gent and  azure,  surmounted  of  a  bend  engrailed  gules, 
within  a  tressure  flory  counterflory  of  the  last. 
Supporters — Dexter,  a  savage  wreathed  about  the 
head  and  loins  with  laurel,  holding  a  club  over  his 
dexter  shoulder  all  proper;  sinister,  a  lion  gules. 

History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family    123 

Crest — A  pelican  argent,  winged  or,  in  her  nest  feed- 
ing her  young,  proper. 
Motto — Virescit  Vulnere  Virtus. 

Arms  of  the  Earl  of  Moray :  Quarterly :  ist  and  4th, 
or,  a  lion  rampant,  within  a  double  tressure  flory 
counterflory,  gules,  surrounded  with  a  bordure  go- 
bony,  argent  and  azure  (as  a  descendant  of  the  Royal 
House  of  Stuart)  ;  2nd,  or,  a  fesse  chequy  azure  and 
argent,  for  Stewart  of  Doune ;  3rd,  or,  three  cushions, 
two  and  one,  of  a  lozenge  form,  within  a  double  tres- 
sure flory  counterflory,  gules,  for  Randolph,  Earl  of 

Supporters — Two  greyhounds  argent,  collared  gules. 
Crest — A  pelican,  in  her  nest,  feeding  her  young, 

Motto — Salus  per  Christum  redemptorem. 
Arms  of  Earl  Castle  Stewart:  Quarterly:  ist,  or,  a 
lion  rampant,  gules,  within  a  double  tressure   flory 
counterflory  of  the  last,  for  Scotland;  2nd,  or,  a  fesse 
chequy  argent  and  azure,  in  chief  a  label  of  three 
points,  gules,  for  Stuart ;  3rd,  argent,  a  saltier  between 
four  roses  gules,  for  Lennox;  4th,  or,  a  lion  rampant 
gules,  for  MacDuff ;  the  whole  within  a  bordure  com- 
pony,  argent  and  azure. 
Supporters — Two  dragons,  vert. 
Crest — A  unicorn's  head  argent,  armed  or. 
Motto — Forward. 

Arms  of  the  Marquess  of  Bute:  Quarterly:  ist  and, 
4th,  or,  a  fesse  chequy,  azure  and  argent,  within  a 
double  tressure  flory  counterflory,  gules,  for  Stuart: 
2nd  and  3rd,  argent,  a  lion  rampant,  azure,  for  Crich- 

Supporters — Dexter,  a  horse,   argent,  bridled  gules* 
sinister,  a  stag  proper,  attired  or. 
Crests — 1st,  a  demi-lion  rampant,  gules,  and  over  it 

124     History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family 

the  motto,  Nobilis  est  ira  leonis,  for  Stuart;  2nd,  a 
wyvern,  fire  issuant  from  the  mouth,  all  proper,  for 
Crichton ;  3rd,  a  wyvern,  proper,  holding  in  the  mouth 
a  sinister  hand  coup^d  gules,  for  Herbert. 
Motto — Avito  viret  honore. 

Arms  of  the  Marquess  of  Londonderry:  Quarterly:  1st 
and  4th,  or,  a  bend  counter  compony  argent  and  azure, 
between  two  lions  rampant,  gules,  for  Stewart;  2nd, 
argent,  a  bend  engrailed,  between  six  martlets,  sable, 
for  Tempest;  3rd,  azure,  three  sinister  gauntlets,  or, 
for  Vane. 

Supporters — Dexter,    a    moor,    wreathed    about    the 
temples  argent  and  azure,  holding  in  his  exterior  hand 
a  shield  of  the  last,  garnished  or,  charged  with  the 
sun  in  splendour,  gold ;  sinister,  a  lion  or,  gorged  with 
a  collar  sable,  charged  with  three  mullets  argent. 
Crests — Stewart,  a  dragon  statant ;  Tempest,  a  griffin's 
head  erased,  per  pale,  argent  and  sable,  beak  gules; 
Vane,  a  dexter  gauntlet,  erect,  holding  a  sword  proper, 
pommel  and  hilt  or. 
Motto — Metuenda  corolla  draconis. 
Arms  of  Stewart  of  Appin  and  Ardsheal :  Quarterly : 
1st  and  4th,  or,  a  fesse  chequy  azure  and  argent,  for 
Stewart;  2nd  and  3rd,  a  galley,  her  sails  trussed  up 
and  oars  in  action,  sable,  and  flags,  gules,  for  Lorn. 
Supporters — Two  roebucks,  proper. 
Crest — A  unicorn's  head,  maned,  horned  and  bearded 

Motto — Quhidder  will  zie. 

Arms  of  Steuart  of  Ballechin :  Quarterly:  ist  and  4th; 
or,  a  lion  rampant,  gules,  armed  and  langued  azure, 
with  a  double  tressure  flory  counterflory  of  the  sec- 
ond, as  descended  from  the  Royal  Family  of  Scotland ; 
2nd  and  3rd,  or,  a  fesse  chequy,  azure  and  argent, 
all  within  a  bordure  engrailed  per  pale,  or  and  argent. 
Motto — Semper  fidelis. 

History  of  the  Stewart  or  Stuart  Family     125 

Arms  of  Stewart  of  Ardvoirlich :  Quarterly :  ist  and 
4th,  or,  a  lion  rampant  within  a  double  tressure  flory 
counterflor) ,  gules;  2nd,  or,  a  fesse  chequy  azure  and 
argent,  in  chief  a  mullet,  gules;  3rd,  argent,  a  saltier 
engrailed  between  four  roses  gules,  barbed  and  seeded 
vert,  all  within  a  bordure  engrailed  compony  azure, 
and  of  the  first. 

Crest — A  dexter  naked  arm  issuant,  grasping  a  sword 
in  bend  sinister,  all  p^roper,  pommel  and  hilt,  or. 
Motto — Deo  juvante  vinco. 

Arms  of  Stirling-Stuart  of  Castlemilk:  Quarterly: 
1st  and  4th,  or,  a  fesse  chequy  argent  and  azure,  over 
all  a  bend  gules,  for  Stuart;  2nd,  argent,  on  a  bend 
sable,  three  buckles  or,  within  a  bordure  gules,  for 
Stirling;  3rd,  gules,  a  fesse  ermine  with  three  crosses 
patee  azure,  for  Crawfurd. 

Crest — A  dexter  arm  erect,  couped  below  the  elbow, 
holding  in  his  hand  a  dagger,  all  proper. 
Motto — Avant. 

Arms  of  Seton-Steuart  of  Allanton ;  Or,  a  fesse  che- 
quy azure  and  argent,  surmounted  of  a  bend  gules, 
charged  with  three  buckles  of  the  field,  on  a  sinister 
canton  of  the  4th,  a  lion  passant  guardant  of  the  first, 
pierced  with  a  dart  proper,  and  in  base  a  broken  spear 
surmounted  of  a  helmet  both  p*roper. 
Supporters — Two  lions  rampant  guardant  proper, 
armed  and  langued  gules,  collared  of  the  last,  charged 
with  three  buckles,  or. 

Crest — Out  of  an  Earl's  coronet,  a  dexter  hand  grasps 
ing  a  thistle,  all  proper. 

Mottoes — Above  the  crest,  Juvant  aspera  fortes; 
under  the  shield,  Virtutis  in  bello  praemium. 

"Crest  of  my  sires !  whose  blood  it  seal'd 
With  glory  in  the  strife  of  swords. 
Ne'er  may  the  scroll  that  bears  it  yield 
Degenerate  thoughts  or  faithless  words."